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Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series


I review results from Chandra observations of nearby normal edge-on galaxies (Sd to Sa types). These galaxies have a broad range of star formation rate, but none of them is dominated by a nuclear starburst. The galaxies are all in directions of low Galactic foreground absorption (NHI ≤ 4 × 1020 cm−2). Extra-Planar diffuse soft X-ray emission is detected unambiguously from all the galaxies, except for N4244 (Sd), which is low in both stellar mass and star formation rate. The thermal nature of the X-ray-emitting gas is well established, although its chemical and ionization states remain largely uncertain. The X-ray luminosity of the gas is proportional to the star formation rate and to the stellar mass of the galaxies. But the luminosity accounts for at most a few percent of the expected supernova mechanical energy input. Therefore, there is a "missing" energy problem for spiral galaxies. Much of the energy in late-type spirals may be converted and radiated in lower energy bands. But early-type ones most likely have outflows, which are powered primarily by Type Ia supernovae in galactic bulges. These galactic outflows may strongly affect both the dynamics and cooling of the intergalactic gas accretion, hence the evolution of the galaxies.


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