Journal or Book Title
The adiabatic criterion, widely used in astronomical dynamics, is based on the harmonic oscillator. It asserts that the change in action under a slow varying perturbation is exponentially small. Recent mathematical results precisely define the conditions for invariance show that this model does not apply in general. In particular, a slowly varying perturbation may cause significant evolution stellar dynamical systems even if its time scale is longer than any internal orbital time scale. This additional 'heating' may have serious implications for the evolution of star clusters and dwarf galaxies which are subject to long-term environmental forces. the mathematical developments leading to these results are reviewed, and the conditions for applicability to and further implications for stellar systems are discussed. Companion papers present a computational method for a general time-dependent disturbance and detailed example.
Weinberg, MD, "ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STELLAR DYNAMICS .1. BASIC CONCEPTS" (1994). ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL. 81.