Journal or Book Title
A new theory of gravitational shocking based on time-dependent perturbation theory shows that the changes in energy and angular momentum due to a slowly varying disturbance are not exponentially small for stellar dynamical systems in general. It predicts significant shock heating by slowly varying perturbations previously thought to be negligible according to the adiabatic criterion. The theory extends the scenarios traditionally computed only with the impulse approximation and is applicable to a wide class of disturbances. The approach is applied specifically to the problem of the disk shocking of star clusters.
Weinberg, MD, "ADIABATIC INVARIANTS IN STELLAR DYNAMICS .2. GRAVITATIONAL SHOCKING" (1994). ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL. 82.