In his The Souls of Black Folk published at the turn of the century, W. E. B. Du Bois posited the existence of a duality within Afro-American life.
Allen, Ernest Jr.
"Ever Feeling One's Twoness: "Double Ideals" and "Double Consciousness" in the Souls of Black Folk,"
Contributions in Black Studies:
Vol. 9, Article 5.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cibs/vol9/iss1/5