TCDD and other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) have been classically considered as non-genotoxic compounds because they fail to be directly mutagenic in either bacteria or most in vitro assay systems. They do so in spite of having repeatedly been linked to oxidative stress and to mutagenic and carcinogenic outcomes. Oxidative stress, on the other hand, has been used as a marker for the toxicity of dioxin and its congeners. We have focused this review on the connection between oxidative stress induction and the toxic effects of fetal and adult dioxin exposure, with emphasis on the large species difference in sensitivity to this agent. We examine the roles that the dioxin-inducible cytochromes P450s play in the cellular and toxicological consequences of dioxin exposure with emphasis on oxidative stress involvement. Many components of the health consequences resulting from dioxin exposure may be attributable to epigenetic mechanisms arising from prolonged reactive oxygen generation.
Reichard, John F; Dalton, Timothy P; Shertzer, Howard G; and Puga, Alvaro
"INDUCTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS RESPONSES BY DIOXIN AND OTHER LIGANDS OF THE ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR,"
Dose-Response: An International Journal: Vol. 3
, Article 5.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol3/iss4/5