The use of microbeam approaches has been a major advance in probing the relevance of bystander and adaptive responses in cell and tissue models. Our own studies at the Gray Cancer Institute have used both a charged particle microbeam, producing protons and helium ions and a soft X-ray microprobe, delivering focused carbon-K, aluminium-K and titanium-K soft X-rays. Using these techniques we have been able to build up a comprehensive picture of the underlying differences between bystander responses and direct effects in cell and tissue-like models. What is now clear is that bystander dose-response relationships, the underlying mechanisms of action and the targets involved are not the same as those observed for direct irradiation of DNA in the nucleus. Our recent studies have shown bystander responses even when radiation is deposited away from the nucleus in cytoplasmic targets. Also the interaction between bystander and adaptive responses may be a complex one related to dose, number of cells targeted and time interval.
Prise, Kevin M; Folkard, Melvyn; and Michael, Barry D
"RADIATION-INDUCED BYSTANDER AND ADAPTIVE RESPONSES IN CELL AND TISSUE MODELS,"
Dose-Response: An International Journal:
4, Article 3.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol4/iss4/3