Ethanol (EtOH) often has stimulatory effects at low doses and inhibitory effects at high doses, affecting behavior and physiology of many organisms in a non-linear manner suggestive of hormesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) shoaling was studied in adult fish exposed to one of five different EtOH concentrations (v/v): 0.0% control, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Digital photographs of groups of four fish were taken every 2 min, with each trial lasting a total of 12 min. The median nearest neighbor distance and shoal area were calculated for each photograph. Exposure to 1.0% EtOH inhibited shoaling. In contrast, as predicted from hormesis, shoaling was significantly tighter (as measured by nearest neighbor distance) at low concentrations (0.125%, 0.25%) compared to the control, and a J-shaped dose-response curve was present. A similar pattern occurred for shoal area, but in this case the only statistically significant differences were between the high concentration and all others.
Kurta, Anastasia and Palestis, Brian G.
"EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON THE SHOALING BEHAVIOR OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO),"
Dose-Response: An International Journal: Vol. 8
, Article 11.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol8/iss4/11