For ionization radiation (IR) induced cancer, a linear non-threshold (LNT) model at very low doses is the default used by a number of national and international organizations and in regulatory law. This default denies any positive benefit from any level of exposure. However, experimental observations and theoretical biology have found that both linear and J-shaped IR dose-response curves can exist at those very low doses. We develop low dose J-shaped dose-response, based on systems biology, and thus justify its use regarding expo- sure to IR. This approach incorporates detailed, molecular and cellular descriptions of biological/toxicological mechanisms to develop a dose-response model through a set of non- linear, differential equations describing the signaling pathways and biochemical mecha- nisms of cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, and tumor incidence due to IR. This approach yields a J-shaped dose response curve while showing where LNT behaviors are likely to occur. The results confirm the hypothesis of the J-shaped dose response curve: the main reason is that, at low-doses of IR, cells stimulate protective systems through a longer cell arrest time per unit of IR dose. We suggest that the policy implications of this approach are an increasingly correct way to deal with precautionary measures in public health.
Zhao, Yuchao and Ricci, Paolo F
"MODELING DOSE-RESPONSE AT LOW DOSE: A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH FOR IONIZATION RADIATION,"
Dose-Response: An International Journal: Vol. 8
, Article 7.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol8/iss4/7