ML-05 is a non-hemolytic form of streptolysin O, the membrane-damaging extracellular toxin produced by certain streptococci. ML-05 stimulates keratinocyte migration and proliferation in wound-healing scratch assays and promotes wound healing in a human skin organ culture wound model. Pathway-focused DNA microarrays were used to elucidate ML-05’s mechanism of action in wound healing processes. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were treated with varying concentrations of ML-05 for 24 hours, followed by RNA extraction and cRNA production. Gene expression profiling utilized microarrays containing nucleic acid probes for 113 extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Microarrays yielded 6 upregulated and 4 downregulated genes with ≥2-fold changes and p<0.05 in t-tests. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) were used to verify gene regulation. Upregulated genes of interest were VCAN (formerly CSPG2, encoding versican), CD44 (encoding hyaluronan receptor), ICAM1 (encoding intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and CTGF (encoding connective tissue growth factor). All four upregulated genes encode proteins involved in promoting keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Downregulated genes of interest were MMP9 (encoding matrix metalloproteinase 9) and SPP1 (encoding osteopontin). ML-05 may enhance wound healing through the expression of specific genes encoding proteins capable of promoting keratinocyte migration, proliferation, and other activities related to maintaining ECM structure and function.
Mamber, Stephen W; Gurel, Volkan; Rhodes, Ryan G; and McMichael, John
"EFFECTS OF STREPTOLYSIN O ON EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX GENE EXPRESSION IN NORMAL HUMAN EPIDERMAL KERATINOCYTES,"
Dose-Response: An International Journal: Vol. 9
, Article 9.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol9/iss4/9