Start Date

7-1-2011 3:15 PM

End Date

7-1-2011 4:00 PM

Track

2. Track 2 - Poster Session

Subject Area

Hospitality and Tourism Education

Faculty Member

Duncan R. Dickson ddickson@mail.ucf.edu

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Since the economic downturn has brought about higher unemployment and greater competition for jobs, it has become commonplace to return to school (Bauman, 2009). This has increased the demand for classes. In some cases, it is not feasible due to time and/or distance restraints for people to take traditional face-to-face courses. Therefore, colleges and universities are challenged to deliver the classes in alternative formats. Hospitality and tourism programs are no longer an exception. New technologies enable both students and faculty to adjust learning opportunities while offering accessibility and scheduling flexibility (Fu, Wang, Cecil & Hji-Avgoustis, 2006).

While the most recent hospitality literature refers to Web-based learning in a social networking context (Kasvana, Nusair & Teodosic, 2010), acceptance and satisfaction with e-learning (Selim, 2007; Song & Bosselman, 2010) and modern learning theories in distance education (Tesone, Severt & Carpenter, 2008), there is little written in the hospitality literature that has explored pedagogies. The only study to do so was by Schott & Sutherland (2008), which looked at a multimedia based technique and active learning to engage students in a New Zealand hospitality program. Collins & Van Hoof, in their 2002 study, examined the pros and cons of Web-based instruction. However, none of the studies have explored the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement in hospitality Web-based courses, nor have there been any comparisons made between the hospitality discipline and any other discipline.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is two-fold. The first part of the study will explore the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement in a Web-based learning environment. The second part of the study will explore if there are differences between the disciplines with respect to teacher effectiveness and student achievement in a Web-based learning environment.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Past research has advocated the use of constructivist models of learning as a standard for both designing and delivering Web-based courses (Bangert, 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006, 2008; Jonassen, 2000, 2003; Partlow & Gibbs, 2003). These models are based on the mindset that learners can build (construct) their knowledge base through learning how to acquire necessary information and resources, problem identification and solving, understand new happenings, and given a new scenario, have the ability to learn how to learn.

Constructivists have asserted that teachers do not instruct students; the students actively construct their own knowledge base. Therefore, the role of the teacher is not one of conveying knowledge to students. Rather, the role of the teacher is to facilitate both the construction of meaning through the utilization of authentic learning experiences and the meaning making-process (Partlow & Gibbs, 2003, p. 72).

As new technology emerged, so did a stream of research applying Chickering & Gamson’s (1987) Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education to Web-based course design. For example, Graham, Cagiltay, Lim, Craner & Duffy (2001) provided practitioners with recommendations for Web-based teaching in each of the seven principles. Newlin & Wang (2002) conducted a study that examined the appropriateness of applying the seven principles to Web-based course design and found that all seven principles were maintained in the current technologies. Wainscott & Murphy’s 2006 study focused on Web-based course design to encourage community, which suggested that for a Web-based course to be effective, its design should provide multiple opportunities for interaction to stimulate participation.

Teaching effectiveness is defined as “how an instructor can best direct, facilitate, and support students toward certain academic ends, such as achievement and satisfaction” (Gorsky & Blau, 2009, p. 1). The literature also lists several methods for gathering student evaluations of teacher effectiveness. For example, Marsh (1982) developed the Students’ Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ) and Aleamoni (1978) developed the Arizona Course Instructor Evaluation Questionnaire, both of which have been utilized in higher education. However, Bangert (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006, 2008) argued that neither of the evaluations properly examined the practices of constructivist models of learning in an effective Web-based environment.

Understanding the faculty perspective of Web-based teaching is important due to the fact that a component of teacher effectiveness is attitude. For example, Stronge, Ward, Tucker, Hindman, McColsky & Howard (2008, p. 208) suggest that “effective” teachers with regard to student achievement possess a set of attitudes that are reflected in positive teacher-student relationships and student encouragement. Tesone (2004, p. 24) provides suggestions for faculty in teaching Web-based courses. In what he calls the instructional phase, it was noted that some teachers face challenges in moving from the “sage on the stage” mindset to that of a virtual instructor, where he or she merely facilitates the learning process.

METHODOLOGY

The population for this study is the total number of undergraduate hospitality and education students who will be taking a Web-based course from a large southeastern university. Two programs were selected based on their rank in the university based on major and discipline respectively as per the University’s Office of Institutional Research in use of Web-based courses. The total number of students taking a Web-based course based on the current registration for the fall 2010 semester is 759 students in 38 Web-based classes (average of 19 per class) in the education program and 414 students in five Web-based classes (average of 83 per class) in the hospitality program.

The participants will be chosen utilizing non-proportional stratified random sampling with the strati being program (hospitality or education) and class for which the student is registered. The required minimum sample size is 410 total students, which is 35 percent of the total population.

ANTICIPATED FINDINGS

It is anticipated that the findings from the first part of the study will show a positive correlation between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. It is also anticipated that the findings from the second part of the study will show no statistically significant differences in the level of teacher effectiveness or level of student achievement between the hospitality and education program groups.

REFERENCES

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Bangert, A. W. (2004). The seven principles of good practice: a framework for evaluating on-

line teaching. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 217-232.

Bangert, A. W. (2005a). Identifying factors underlying the quality of online teaching

effectiveness: an exploratory study. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(2), 79-99.

Bangert, A. W. (2005b). The seven principles of effective teaching: a framework for designing,

delivering, and evaluating an Internet-based assessment course for nurse educators. Nurse Educator, 30(5), 221-225.

Bangert, A. W. (2006). The development of an instrument for assessing online teaching

effectiveness. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 35(3), 227-244.

Bangert, A. W. (2008). The development and validation of the student evaluation online

teaching effectiveness. Computers in the Schools, 25(1), 25-47.

Bauman, S. (2009). Group work in the economic downturn. The Journal for Specialists in

Group Work, 34(2), 97-100.

Chickering, A. W. & Erhmann, S. C. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: technology as

lever. AAHE Bulletin, 49(2), 3-6.

Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in

undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.

Collins, D. & Van Hoof, H. (2002). The pros and cons of web-based instruction. International

Journal of Hospitality Information Technology, 2(1), 1-7.

Dessoff, A. (2009). The rise of the virtual teacher. District Administration, 45(2), 23-26.

Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 2nd Edition.

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fu, Y-Y, Wang, S. Cecil, A.K. & Hji-Avgoustis, S. (2006). The acceptance of and satisfaction

with e-learning in the hospitality programs at Midwestern universities. Proceedings of the International Business Center of Excellence 13th Annual Conference, 26-40.

Gorsky, P. & Blau, I. (2009). Online teaching effectiveness: a tale of two instructors.

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), 1-27.

Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Lim, B-R., Craner, J., & Duffy, T. M. (2001, March/April). Seven

Principles of effective teaching: a practical lens for evaluating online courses. Technology Source. Retrieved July 4, 2010, from http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp?show=article&id=839

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Computers as Mindtools for Schools. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Prentice Hall.

Jonassen, D. H. (2003). Learning to Solve Problems with Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Merrill Prentice Hall.

Kasavana, M. L., Nusair, K. & Teodosic, K. (2010). Online social networking: redefining the

human web. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 1(1), 68-82.

Mehrotra, V. S. & Sacheti, A.K. (2009). Integrating TVET with open and distance education

learning: taking skills training to the doorstep. In R. Maclean & D. Wilson (Eds.)

International Handbook of Education for Changing World of Work, 1989-2001.

Newlin, M. Y. & Wang, A. Y. (2002). Integrating technology and pedagogy: web instruction

and seven principles of undergraduate education. Teaching of Psychology, 9, 235-330.

Partlow, K. M. & Gibbs, W. J. (2003). Indicators of constructivist principles in Internet-based

courses. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 14(2), 68-97.

Schott, C. & Sutherland, K. A. (2008). Engaging tourism students through multimedia teaching

and active learning. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 8(4), 351-371.

Selim, H. M. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor

models. Computers & Education, 49(2), 396-413.

Song, S. & Bosselman, R. (2010). The acceptance of and satisfaction with e-learning in the

hospitality programs at Midwestern universities. Hospitality and Tourism Education Proceedings of the 15th Annual Graduate Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, 43-60.

Stonge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Tucker, P.D., Hindman, J. L., McColsky, W. & Howard, B. (2008).

National board certified teachers and non-national board certified teachers: is there a difference in teacher effectiveness and student achievement? Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 20(3/4), 185.210.

Tesone, D. V. (2004). Teaching in cyberspace: the faculty perspective. Journal of College

Teaching & Learning, 1(12), 23-26.

Tesone, D. V., Severt, D. & Carpenter, M. L. (2008). Modern learning theories provide

applications for distance learning practice. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 5(5), 17-24.

Wainscott, L. & Murphy, C. (2006). Designing online courses to encourage community with the

seven principles of good practice. Technology & Teacher Education, retrieved July 4, 2010 from editlib.org proceeding_22488.pdf.

Keywords

hospitality education, teacher effectiveness, student achievement, Web-based courses



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Jan 7th, 3:15 PM Jan 7th, 4:00 PM

Exploring Web-Based Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement

INTRODUCTION

Since the economic downturn has brought about higher unemployment and greater competition for jobs, it has become commonplace to return to school (Bauman, 2009). This has increased the demand for classes. In some cases, it is not feasible due to time and/or distance restraints for people to take traditional face-to-face courses. Therefore, colleges and universities are challenged to deliver the classes in alternative formats. Hospitality and tourism programs are no longer an exception. New technologies enable both students and faculty to adjust learning opportunities while offering accessibility and scheduling flexibility (Fu, Wang, Cecil & Hji-Avgoustis, 2006).

While the most recent hospitality literature refers to Web-based learning in a social networking context (Kasvana, Nusair & Teodosic, 2010), acceptance and satisfaction with e-learning (Selim, 2007; Song & Bosselman, 2010) and modern learning theories in distance education (Tesone, Severt & Carpenter, 2008), there is little written in the hospitality literature that has explored pedagogies. The only study to do so was by Schott & Sutherland (2008), which looked at a multimedia based technique and active learning to engage students in a New Zealand hospitality program. Collins & Van Hoof, in their 2002 study, examined the pros and cons of Web-based instruction. However, none of the studies have explored the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement in hospitality Web-based courses, nor have there been any comparisons made between the hospitality discipline and any other discipline.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is two-fold. The first part of the study will explore the relationship between teacher effectiveness and student achievement in a Web-based learning environment. The second part of the study will explore if there are differences between the disciplines with respect to teacher effectiveness and student achievement in a Web-based learning environment.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Past research has advocated the use of constructivist models of learning as a standard for both designing and delivering Web-based courses (Bangert, 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006, 2008; Jonassen, 2000, 2003; Partlow & Gibbs, 2003). These models are based on the mindset that learners can build (construct) their knowledge base through learning how to acquire necessary information and resources, problem identification and solving, understand new happenings, and given a new scenario, have the ability to learn how to learn.

Constructivists have asserted that teachers do not instruct students; the students actively construct their own knowledge base. Therefore, the role of the teacher is not one of conveying knowledge to students. Rather, the role of the teacher is to facilitate both the construction of meaning through the utilization of authentic learning experiences and the meaning making-process (Partlow & Gibbs, 2003, p. 72).

As new technology emerged, so did a stream of research applying Chickering & Gamson’s (1987) Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education to Web-based course design. For example, Graham, Cagiltay, Lim, Craner & Duffy (2001) provided practitioners with recommendations for Web-based teaching in each of the seven principles. Newlin & Wang (2002) conducted a study that examined the appropriateness of applying the seven principles to Web-based course design and found that all seven principles were maintained in the current technologies. Wainscott & Murphy’s 2006 study focused on Web-based course design to encourage community, which suggested that for a Web-based course to be effective, its design should provide multiple opportunities for interaction to stimulate participation.

Teaching effectiveness is defined as “how an instructor can best direct, facilitate, and support students toward certain academic ends, such as achievement and satisfaction” (Gorsky & Blau, 2009, p. 1). The literature also lists several methods for gathering student evaluations of teacher effectiveness. For example, Marsh (1982) developed the Students’ Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ) and Aleamoni (1978) developed the Arizona Course Instructor Evaluation Questionnaire, both of which have been utilized in higher education. However, Bangert (2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006, 2008) argued that neither of the evaluations properly examined the practices of constructivist models of learning in an effective Web-based environment.

Understanding the faculty perspective of Web-based teaching is important due to the fact that a component of teacher effectiveness is attitude. For example, Stronge, Ward, Tucker, Hindman, McColsky & Howard (2008, p. 208) suggest that “effective” teachers with regard to student achievement possess a set of attitudes that are reflected in positive teacher-student relationships and student encouragement. Tesone (2004, p. 24) provides suggestions for faculty in teaching Web-based courses. In what he calls the instructional phase, it was noted that some teachers face challenges in moving from the “sage on the stage” mindset to that of a virtual instructor, where he or she merely facilitates the learning process.

METHODOLOGY

The population for this study is the total number of undergraduate hospitality and education students who will be taking a Web-based course from a large southeastern university. Two programs were selected based on their rank in the university based on major and discipline respectively as per the University’s Office of Institutional Research in use of Web-based courses. The total number of students taking a Web-based course based on the current registration for the fall 2010 semester is 759 students in 38 Web-based classes (average of 19 per class) in the education program and 414 students in five Web-based classes (average of 83 per class) in the hospitality program.

The participants will be chosen utilizing non-proportional stratified random sampling with the strati being program (hospitality or education) and class for which the student is registered. The required minimum sample size is 410 total students, which is 35 percent of the total population.

ANTICIPATED FINDINGS

It is anticipated that the findings from the first part of the study will show a positive correlation between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. It is also anticipated that the findings from the second part of the study will show no statistically significant differences in the level of teacher effectiveness or level of student achievement between the hospitality and education program groups.

REFERENCES

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Bangert, A. W. (2004). The seven principles of good practice: a framework for evaluating on-

line teaching. Internet and Higher Education, 7, 217-232.

Bangert, A. W. (2005a). Identifying factors underlying the quality of online teaching

effectiveness: an exploratory study. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 17(2), 79-99.

Bangert, A. W. (2005b). The seven principles of effective teaching: a framework for designing,

delivering, and evaluating an Internet-based assessment course for nurse educators. Nurse Educator, 30(5), 221-225.

Bangert, A. W. (2006). The development of an instrument for assessing online teaching

effectiveness. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 35(3), 227-244.

Bangert, A. W. (2008). The development and validation of the student evaluation online

teaching effectiveness. Computers in the Schools, 25(1), 25-47.

Bauman, S. (2009). Group work in the economic downturn. The Journal for Specialists in

Group Work, 34(2), 97-100.

Chickering, A. W. & Erhmann, S. C. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: technology as

lever. AAHE Bulletin, 49(2), 3-6.

Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in

undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.

Collins, D. & Van Hoof, H. (2002). The pros and cons of web-based instruction. International

Journal of Hospitality Information Technology, 2(1), 1-7.

Dessoff, A. (2009). The rise of the virtual teacher. District Administration, 45(2), 23-26.

Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 2nd Edition.

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fu, Y-Y, Wang, S. Cecil, A.K. & Hji-Avgoustis, S. (2006). The acceptance of and satisfaction

with e-learning in the hospitality programs at Midwestern universities. Proceedings of the International Business Center of Excellence 13th Annual Conference, 26-40.

Gorsky, P. & Blau, I. (2009). Online teaching effectiveness: a tale of two instructors.

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), 1-27.

Graham, C., Cagiltay, K., Lim, B-R., Craner, J., & Duffy, T. M. (2001, March/April). Seven

Principles of effective teaching: a practical lens for evaluating online courses. Technology Source. Retrieved July 4, 2010, from http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp?show=article&id=839

Jonassen, D. H. (2000). Computers as Mindtools for Schools. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Prentice Hall.

Jonassen, D. H. (2003). Learning to Solve Problems with Technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Merrill Prentice Hall.

Kasavana, M. L., Nusair, K. & Teodosic, K. (2010). Online social networking: redefining the

human web. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 1(1), 68-82.

Mehrotra, V. S. & Sacheti, A.K. (2009). Integrating TVET with open and distance education

learning: taking skills training to the doorstep. In R. Maclean & D. Wilson (Eds.)

International Handbook of Education for Changing World of Work, 1989-2001.

Newlin, M. Y. & Wang, A. Y. (2002). Integrating technology and pedagogy: web instruction

and seven principles of undergraduate education. Teaching of Psychology, 9, 235-330.

Partlow, K. M. & Gibbs, W. J. (2003). Indicators of constructivist principles in Internet-based

courses. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 14(2), 68-97.

Schott, C. & Sutherland, K. A. (2008). Engaging tourism students through multimedia teaching

and active learning. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 8(4), 351-371.

Selim, H. M. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor

models. Computers & Education, 49(2), 396-413.

Song, S. & Bosselman, R. (2010). The acceptance of and satisfaction with e-learning in the

hospitality programs at Midwestern universities. Hospitality and Tourism Education Proceedings of the 15th Annual Graduate Research Conference in Hospitality and Tourism, 43-60.

Stonge, J. H., Ward, T. J., Tucker, P.D., Hindman, J. L., McColsky, W. & Howard, B. (2008).

National board certified teachers and non-national board certified teachers: is there a difference in teacher effectiveness and student achievement? Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 20(3/4), 185.210.

Tesone, D. V. (2004). Teaching in cyberspace: the faculty perspective. Journal of College

Teaching & Learning, 1(12), 23-26.

Tesone, D. V., Severt, D. & Carpenter, M. L. (2008). Modern learning theories provide

applications for distance learning practice. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 5(5), 17-24.

Wainscott, L. & Murphy, C. (2006). Designing online courses to encourage community with the

seven principles of good practice. Technology & Teacher Education, retrieved July 4, 2010 from editlib.org proceeding_22488.pdf.