We consider the possibility of adding a stage to a dilution refrigerator to provide additional cooling by “filtering out” hot atoms. Three methods are considered: (1) effusion, where holes having diameters larger than a mean-free path allow atoms to pass through easily; (2) particle waveguidelike motion using very narrow channels that greatly restrict the quantum states of the atoms in a channel; (3) wall-limited diffusion through channels, in which the wall scattering is disordered so that local density equilibrium is established in a channel. We assume that channel dimensions are smaller than the mean-free path for atom-atom interactions. The particle waveguide and the wall-limited diffusion methods using channels on order of the de Broglie wavelength give cooling. Recent advances in nanofilters give this method some hope of being practical.
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS