The condensate number in PIMC treatments of trapped bosons
In path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) treatments of harmonically trapped bosons, one cannot use the usual long-range constant limit of the one-body reduced density matrix ρ1 to determine the condensate number n0 because ρ1 always approaches zero in a trap. W. Krauth found that the longest permutation cycle arising in the simulation gives a consistent value of n0. Our analytical studies of the ideal gas suggest other ways of using permutation cycles to determine n0. We test these approaches on simulations involving finite-size ideal and interacting gases and find that the methods are consistent.