As a result of drum re-finishing operations, soil and groundwater at the Ottati and Goss Superfund Site in Kingston, NH are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs); benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); and 1,4-dioxane. After re-evaluation of the selected remedy for groundwater, pump and treat, EPA changed the remediation approach to in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) through an Amended Record of Decision in September 2007. At that time, EPA established a goal for the site to attain construction complete status within one year, by September 30, 2008.

Activated persulfate was selected as the chemical oxidant for its capability to oxidize 1,4-dioxane, in addition to the other VOC contaminants of concern. Bench-scale and field pilot scale test were completed in three source areas to collect site-specific information to evaluate persulfate's ability to destroy the contaminants of concern and to optimize full-scale remediation design in three discrete source areas at the site. Base-activated persulfate was injected in Areas A and B in December 2007, and pilot test injection was completed in Area C in early February 2008, after vertical profiling was completed throughout Area C. Groundwater sampling for laboratory analysis was planned for 6 and 12 weeks after injection in each area; however, it was known during pilot test planning that the full-scale design would need to be completed by the end of March 2008, before all laboratory results would be available. In order to complete the design, an intensive evaluation of field geochemistry parameters and field screening chemical analysis was performed to assess radius of influence, oxidant persistence, and aquifer behavior. Field screening analyses included residual persulfate via a permanganate titration, sulfate via colorimetry, and sodium via an ion-selective electrode. The field screening and field geochemistry results were used heavily in completing the full-scale ISCO design. The laboratory analytical results noted significant decreases in concentrations of chemicals of concern in wells where geochemistry and field parameters were observed to change. This article discusses pilot test planning, performance monitoring, and full-scale design using data collected from the pilot test for this fast-track remediation. The full-scale application was completed between July and September 2008, and was the third largest single-site application of persulfate performed to date.