Abstract

A limitation of the IOS is that it does not account for distances individuals feel apart from one another. This work seeks to add an additional category to the traditional 7-point scale to account for no overlap between residents and tourists. The modified IOS displayed high reliability. An independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference between tourists’ (M = 4.58) and residents’ (M = 4.13) emotional closeness with one another. Future research opportunities are offered including further modification of the IOS to provide an equal number of response categories of a negative relationship (i.e., dislike) and positive relationship (i.e., closeness).

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Modifying the Inclusion of Other in Self (IOS) Scale and comparing residents’ and tourists’ perceived closeness with one another

A limitation of the IOS is that it does not account for distances individuals feel apart from one another. This work seeks to add an additional category to the traditional 7-point scale to account for no overlap between residents and tourists. The modified IOS displayed high reliability. An independent samples t-test revealed a significant difference between tourists’ (M = 4.58) and residents’ (M = 4.13) emotional closeness with one another. Future research opportunities are offered including further modification of the IOS to provide an equal number of response categories of a negative relationship (i.e., dislike) and positive relationship (i.e., closeness).