Journal or Book Title
The Astrophysical Journal
We present a 60 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of the isolated edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3556, together with a multiwavelength analysis of various discrete X-ray sources and diffuse X-ray features. Among 33 discrete X-ray sources detected within the IB = 25 mag arcsec-2 isophote ellipse of the galaxy, we identify a candidate for the galactic nucleus, an ultraluminous X-ray source that might be an accreting intermediate-mass black hole, a possible X-ray binary with a radio counterpart, and two radio-bright giant H II regions. We detect large amounts of extraplanar diffuse X-ray emission, which extend about 10 kpc radially in the disk and 4 kpc away from the galactic plane. The diffuse X-ray emission exhibits significant substructures, possibly representing various blown-out superbubbles or chimneys of hot gas heated in massive star-forming regions. This X-ray-emitting gas has temperatures in the range of ~(2-7) × 106 K and has a total cooling rate of ~2 × 1040 ergs s-1. The energy can be easily supplied by supernova blast waves in the galaxy. These results show NGC 3556 to be a galaxy undergoing vigorous disk-halo interaction. The halo in NGC 3556 is considerably less extended, however, than that of NGC 4631, in spite of many similarities between the two galaxies. This may be due to the fact that NGC 3556 is isolated, whereas NGC 4631 is interacting. Thus, NGC 3556 presents a more pristine environment for studying the disk-halo interaction.
Wang, QD; Chaves, T; and Irwin, JA, "Chandra Observation of the Edge-on Galaxy NGC 3556 (M108): Violent Galactic Disk-Halo Interaction Revealed" (2003). The Astrophysical Journal. 1043.