Publication Date


Journal or Book Title

The Astronomical Journal


The 3 mm wavelength spectra of 10 galaxies have been obtained at the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory using a new, very broadband receiver and spectrometer, called the Redshift Search Receiver (RSR). The RSR has an instantaneous bandwidth of 37 GHz covering frequencies from 74 to 111 GHz and has a spectral resolution of 31 MHz (~100 km s–1). During tests of the RSR on the FCRAO 14 m telescope the complete 3 mm spectra of the central regions of NGC 253, Maffei 2, NGC1068, IC 342, M82, NGC 3079, NGC 3690, NGC 4258, Arp 220, and NGC 6240 were obtained. Within the wavelength band covered by the RSR, 20 spectral lines from 14 different atomic and molecular species were detected. Based on simultaneous fits to the spectrum of each galaxy, a number of key molecular line ratios are derived. A simple model which assumes the emission arises from an ensemble of Milky Way like Giant Molecular Cloud cores can adequately fit the observed line ratios using molecular abundances based on Galactic molecular cloud cores. Variations seen in some line ratios, such as 13CO/HCN and HCO+/HCN, can be explained if the mean density of the molecular gas varies from galaxy to galaxy. However, NGC 3690, NGC 4258, and NGC 6240 show very large HCO+/HCN ratios and require significant abundance enhancement of HCO+ over HCN, possible due to the proximity to active galactic nucleus activity. Finally, the mass of dense molecular gas is estimated and we infer that 25%-85% of the total molecular gas in the central regions of these galaxies must have densities greater than 104 cm–3.


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