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Author summary Why was this study done? Despite major gains in HIV testing and treatment, there were 1.7 million new HIV infections worldwide in 2019, of which nearly 60% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is highly effective for HIV prevention and could substantially reduce new HIV infections if offered alongside access to HIV testing and treatment. Little is known about the incidence of new HIV infections among PrEP users in settings with generalized HIV epidemics, particularly when offered broadly across communities where access to HIV testing and treatment have already been scaled up. What did the researchers do and find? In 16 communities in rural Kenya and Uganda, we conducted community-wide HIV testing and offered universal access to PrEP with an inclusive approach to eligibility (for persons in serodifferent partnerships, those identified by an HIV risk prediction tool, or those who self-identified as being at risk of HIV). We offered rapid PrEP start and a flexible care delivery model with follow-up visits at health facilities or community-based sites for HIV testing and PrEP refills. Of 74,541 persons who tested negative for HIV, 15,632 (21%) were assessed to be at elevated HIV risk, of whom 5,447 (35%) started PrEP. Overall, 79% of persons who initiated PrEP engaged in the program for follow-up visits. Among PrEP initiators in the 16 study communities, there were 25 seroconversions over 7,150 person-years of follow-up. HIV incidence was 0.35 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.49). In 8 communities, we compared HIV incidence among PrEP initiators to persons with similar characteristics (matched controls) from the year before PrEP was available. Compared to matched controls, HIV incidence was 74% lower among PrEP initiators overall; 76% lower among women who initiated PrEP; and 40% lower among men who initiated PrEP, although this result among men did not reach statistical significance. What do these findings mean? Providing universal access to PrEP in the context of community-wide HIV testing in rural Kenya and Uganda was associated with lower HIV incidence among persons who initiated PrEP compared to matched recent controls. We found lower HIV incidence after PrEP initiation among women, for whom rates of new HIV infections are higher than in men, including in recent prevention studies without PrEP. These results suggest that PrEP may help to close the gap in new infections between men and women. Universal access to HIV testing, treatment, and prevention, including rapid provision of PrEP with flexible service delivery, could reduce HIV incidence in generalized epidemic settings. Background Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective for HIV prevention, but data are limited on HIV incidence among PrEP users in generalized epidemic settings, particularly outside of selected risk groups. We performed a population-based PrEP study in rural Kenya and Uganda and sought to evaluate both changes in HIV incidence and clinical and virologic outcomes following seroconversion on PrEP. Methods and findings During population-level HIV testing of individuals >= 15 years in 16 communities in the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) study (NCT01864603), we offered universal access to PrEP with enhanced counseling for persons at elevated HIV risk (based on serodifferent partnership, machine learning-based risk score, or self-identified HIV risk). We offered rapid or same-day PrEP initiation and flexible service delivery with follow-up visits at facilities or community-based sites at 4, 12, and every 12 weeks up to week 144. Among participants with incident HIV infection after PrEP initiation, we offered same-day antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and analyzed HIV RNA, tenofovir hair concentrations, drug resistance, and viral suppression (<1,000 c/ml based on available assays) after ART start. Using Poisson regression with cluster-robust standard errors, we compared HIV incidence among PrEP initiators to incidence among propensity score-matched recent historical controls (from the year before PrEP availability) in 8 of the 16 communities, adjusted for risk group. Among 74,541 individuals who tested negative for HIV, 15,632/74,541 (21%) were assessed to be at elevated HIV risk; 5,447/15,632 (35%) initiated PrEP (49% female; 29% 15-24 years; 19% in serodifferent partnerships), of whom 79% engaged in >= 1 follow-up visit and 61% self-reported PrEP adherence at >= 1 visit. Over 7,150 person-years of follow-up, HIV incidence was 0.35 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.49) among PrEP initiators. Among matched controls, HIV incidence was 0.92 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.49-1.41), corresponding to 74% lower incidence among PrEP initiators compared to matched controls (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75; p = 0.013). Among women, HIV incidence was 76% lower among PrEP initiators versus matched controls (aIRR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.79; p = 0.019); among men, HIV incidence was 40% lower, but not significantly so (aIRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.12-3.05; p = 0.54). Of 25 participants with incident HIV infection (68% women), 7/25 (28%) reported taking PrEP <= 30 days before HIV diagnosis, and 24/25 (96%) started ART. Of those with repeat HIV RNA after ART start, 18/19 (95%) had <1,000 c/ml. One participant with viral non-suppression was found to have transmitted viral resistance, as well as emtricitabine resistance possibly related to PrEP use. Limitations include the lack of contemporaneous controls to assess HIV incidence without PrEP and that plasma samples were not archived to assess for baseline acute infection. Conclusions Population-level offer of PrEP with rapid start and flexible service delivery was associated with 74% lower HIV incidence among PrEP initiators compared to matched recent controls prior to PrEP availability. HIV infections were significantly lower among women who started PrEP. Universal HIV testing with linkage to treatment and prevention, including PrEP, is a promising approach to accelerate reductions in new infections in generalized epidemic settings.




Atukunda, Mucunguzi/0000-0003-4762-0728; Owaraganise, Asiphas/0000-0002-5594-0310







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Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the U.S. National Institutes of Health [U01AI099959, UM1AI068636]; Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationBill & Melinda Gates FoundationCGIAR [OPP1159068]; U.S. National Institutes of HealthUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [2R01AI098472, K23MH114760]; Gates FoundationBill & Melinda Gates Foundation; U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)United States Agency for International Development (USAID)United States Department of Health & Human ServicesCenters for Disease Control & Prevention - USA