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Packing procedure is the mechanical process of forming a packing of soil particles, such as funnel pouring, tamping, rodding, pluviation, compaction, vibration, compression, etc. For a sand-silt mixture, packing procedure and particle shape have significant effects on the density of the binary mixture. However, these two factors have not been considered in most of the existing particle packing density models. Thus, the existing particle packing density models are not applicable to sand-silt mixtures. In this paper, we aim to study the packing procedure and particle shape effects on density of binary mixtures. We firstly define a packing potential index, which is a measure of volume reduction potential due to mixing of two components of a binary mixture system under a packing procedure. To understand the nature of packing potential index, we compare the packing potential indices of 24 different types of mixtures collected from the literature; the 24 types of mixtures were formed by two different types of packing procedure (i.e., for achieving minimum and maximum void ratios). It is found that the packing potential index is nearly independent of packing procedure but significantly dependent on the compound particle shapes of a mixture. Then, we mathematically link the packing potential index to the particle interaction parameters used in the particle packing density models. And we analyze the data to discuss the effect of packing procedure on the void ratios of sand-silt mixtures. We then propose an approach within the framework of particle packing density model to predict the void ratios of sand-silt mixtures under different packing procedures with the consideration of particle shape effect.
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Chang, Ching S. and Deng, Yibing, "Packing potential index for binary mixtures of granular soil" (2020). Powder Technology. 847.