Michael Knodler

Publication Date



Traffic Control Devices (TCDs) are integral to driver-to-infrastructure (D2I) and vehicleto- infrastructure (V2I) interactions. The non-conformation (or non-perception) with signage on the part of the driver leads to several compounded safety problems. The need exists for a more robust, low-cost, and user-centric mechanism of delivering information to the driver that can directly bear on the safety of the driver. Technology has now advanced to the point where we can deliver information from a real-world physical environment to the driver in a non-invasive manner using holographic display [1]. With this rapid advancement in-vehicle display (IVD) technology, the transportation industry must undergo a transition period before entering the world of connected and autonomous vehicles. Here, the integration of IVD in vehicles will play major role. The advantage here is the level of flexibility and control offered by dynamic IVD which allows us to provide very specific traffic control information to the driver at situations and epochs deemed appropriate. The research questions will be focused on how such safety-critical traffic control information (and what specific information) can be delivered effectively to the driver using dynamic IVD without causing any form of distraction or engagement related problems. Vehicles exceeding the posted speed limit present an optimal application. In regards to the hierarchy of TCDs, there is an urgent need for drivers to comply to speed limits. According to NHTSA, 26% of traffic fatalities in 2017 resulted from crashes where at least one of drivers’ was speeding [2]. In addition to this, the act of unintentional speeding has been identified in research as the most frequent driving violation [3]. This forms the primary objective, which is to investigate the driver behavior and compliance to IVD speed alerts. This research investigates the characteristics of visual cues that minimize the drivers’ perception time without adding to the redundant visual clutter at the same time accounting the safety aspects required in a driving environment. This research endeavor evaluated drivers in a controlled environment using a full-scale driving simulator with active in-vehicle displays and eye-tracking equipment. The experiment investigated driving parameters such as head/eye movements, vehicle handling measures, task-engagement behaviors, and physiological parameters. Ultimately, the goal of this study was to understand driver sign compliance with the implementation of IVD in the driving simulator environment. The results were helpful to gain a better understanding of drivers’ responsiveness depending on the nature of the cue.