Shapes of Normal and Reverse Flow Injection Signals: On-Line Formation of Iodine from Iodate, Iodide, and Hydrogen Ion
Journal or Book Title
Signal shapes for the on-line formation of iodine from iodate, iodide and hydrogen ion in a single-channel manifold using large-volume slug and large-volume time-based injections have been determined using visible spectrophotometry. These large injection volume studies were made first as a means of understanding the shapes of normal and reverse flow injection signals obtained at more conventional injection volumes (10--100 µI). The signal shapes at large injection volumes were determined for the six possible combinations of the reagents in the two solutions serving as carrier stream and injectate so that one solution contained two reagents and the other solution one or two reagents. Each combination of reagents represents two complementary systems in which the roles of each solution as carrier stream and injectate are reversed. At these large injection volumes each signal consisted of two independent peaks caused by dispersion at the front and rear boundaries of the injected bolus. The signals obtained for the time-based injections for complementary systems were identical in shape and height except that the front peak of one system was identical with the rear peak of its complementary system and vice versa. Clearly, at such large injection volumes the terms normal flow injection (nFI) and reverse flow injection (rFI) have no real meaning, the shape of each independent peak being determined by the composition and relative positions of the two solutions forming the boundary at which the peak is formed. For slug injections, similar shapes were observed but the peak heights were affected markedly by the greater dispersion at the rear boundary which travels further than the front boundary. This comparison of the signals obtained with slug and time-based injections, despite different flow-rates being used for the two modes of injection, clearly shows the effect of the unequal dispersion at the two boundaries in the slug injection method. Examination of the signals obtained with time-based injection, however, clearly indicates that the solution compositions, and their relative positions in the flow stream, also affect the shapes and relative heights of the front and rear peaks. The shapes of all these signals are illustrated. The effect of reducing the slug injection volume stepwise from 2 ml to 100 µI was studied for the 103-J- < H+ and H+ < 103-1- systems(< denotes the direction of the boundary shape). This indicated that the shapes and heights of the single peaks observed in the rFI and nFI formation of iodine carried out at the more conventional lower injection volumes are determined by dispersion at the rear and front boundaries of the bolus, respectively. Hence, as the two peaks observed in a large-volume injection merged as the injection volume was decreased, the major peak predominated and became the observed signal. The use of a much smaller injection volume was necessary in rFI than in nFI in order to obtain a single peak.
Tyson, Julian; Fogg, A. G.; and Wang, X., "Shapes of Normal and Reverse Flow Injection Signals: On-Line Formation of Iodine from Iodate, Iodide, and Hydrogen Ion" (1989). Analyst. 1299.
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