Analytical selenoamino acid studies by chromatography with interfaced atomic mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectral detection
Consumption of selenium enriched plants or yeast-based nutritional supplements has been reported to provide anticarcinogenic benefits which are selenium compound dependent. Separation and identification of these selenium compounds is critical to understand the activity. Plants and yeast convert inorganic selenium in the soil or growth media into organoselenium compounds, probably following a route similar to the sulfur assimilatory pathway. Non-volatile selenium compounds produced include selenoamino acids, some of which have shown anticarcinogenic activity. Volatile compounds produced by chemical reaction of involatile precursors have also been found. An ion pair chromatographic method with ICP-MS detection for the separation of selenoamino acid standards potentially present in real samples is given. The method allows separation of selenoamino acids including such analytes as the cis-trans isomers of Se-1- propenyl-DL-selenocysteine. The method also provides the capability of determining the presence of selenoxides and possibly selenones, and tracking of other functionalities and reactions by selective derivatization. Alternatively, selenoamino acids are treated with ethylchloroformate to produce stable volatile derivatives which are amenable to GC separation with element specific atomic emission detection (GC-AED). Results of total selenium determination and speciation of selenium enriched yeastbased nutritional supplements, selenium enriched allium vegetables and bioremediation samples are presented.