Twaweza Initiative

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  • Publication
    Evaluating 'Twaweza' Presentation
    (2010-01-01) Rossman, Gretchen; Hartwell, Ash
    Presentation at the Comparative & International Education Society meetings March 3, 2010, Chicago, IL The Center for International Education (CIE) was awarded a contract to serve as the independent evaluation entity for the Twaweza initiative based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Twaweza ("we can make it happen" in Swahili) is a ten-year initiative, funded by the Dutch development organizations Hivos and SNV and other donors. Its overall goal is to foster citizen-driven change and to empower East African citizens (inTanzania,Kenya, andUganda) to advocate for access to and the quality of basic services (particularly basic education, clean water, and health services).
  • Publication
    Twaweza Independent Evaluation Design Elaboration of Mixed Methods Design, Evaluation Questions, Key Hypotheses, and Methods
    (2010-01-01) Rossman, Gretchen; Hartwell, Ash
    The purpose of this document is to provide elaboration on overall mixed methods design and how the key evaluation questions and broad hypotheses link to specific methods. First is a short discussion of the mixed methods design for the baseline studies; second is a brief discussion of types of research and evaluation questions as a framework;; third, the more inquiry-oriented broad evaluation questions are listed with a discussion about the specific methods and items to respond to them; and fourth, preliminary broad hyotheses are listed with a discussion of which items in the baseline surveys and in proposed targeted studies can respond to these. Annexes include a short discussion on what constitutes evidence (A); the objectives of the baseline surveys (B); a table indicating methods and timing (C); and a table listing overall evaluation questions and methodologies (D).
  • Publication
    Twaweza Independent Evaluation Design
    (2010-01-01) Rossman, Gretchen; Hartwell, Ash
    This document describes the theoretical and conceptual framework for the independent evaluation of Twaweza. It describes and amplifies Twaweza’s theory of change: its key concepts, relationships and assumptions, and on this base articulates the evaluation’s conceptual framework, principles, approaches and methodologies. A fundamental premise informs this work: the perspectives and lived experiences of citizens in East Africa will shape the theory and its evaluation. By implication, this design document provides a starting point (building on the body of previous research on evaluating social change and Twaweza’s work on this) that will be modified and shaped by experience with communities, citizens, institutions, and Twaweza’s partners. This document begins with a brief introduction to the Twaweza initiative and to the goals and purposes of the independent evaluation. It then examines the premises and implications of Twaweza’s theory of social change, understood as a complex, organic system, an ‘ecological’ model, as Twaweza seeks to foment an ‘ecosystem of change’. It places the Twaweza’s strategy of working through established partner institutions to energize citizen agency and action within the context of political, social, and environmental conditions. It also describes the character of state bureaucracies, and the range of their responses to citizen agency, including greater engagement with citizens leading to improvement in the reach and quality of public services: water/sanitation, health, and education. This overview of the theory of social change, including its key concepts and processes, provides the basis for describing key questions and hypotheses, and the independent evaluation principles and methodology. Details on the evaluation design include key evaluation questions; implementation; components; approaches and methodologies; concluding with a discussion of strategies for communicating and disseminating evaluation elements and findings. This body of the document ends with matrices mapping key concepts onto methodologies (Table 1); linking methodologies, sampling, and timing (Table 2); and preliminary indicators of key concepts (Table 3).
  • Publication
    Twaweza Evaluation Final Report
    (2010-01-01) Rossman, Gretchen; Evans, David R.
    This report covers the period October 1, 2009, through June 15, 2010, the effective date of the termination agreement. The sections of this report include: activities during this period; management, financial, and technical reports submitted; and a list of reports to be submitted.
  • Publication
    Twaweza Independent Evaluation Overview of Baseline and Other Surveys
    (2010-01-01) Rossman, Gretchen
    As stipulated in the independent evaluation contract, CIE will implement baseline surveys at households, facilities (schools, health clinics), and communities using national randomly-selected samples in all three countries. These will be followed up in 2012 with a targeted micro-survey and then with full national-level random administrations in late 2013 or early 2014. The rationale for the baseline surveys and the subsequent full follow-up survey administrations is to measure change along key variables over time. The rationale for the mid-term micro-survey is to measure targeted change, using the full baseline study (including case studies) as a guide. Given the key evaluation questions to be addressed, the baseline surveys need to establish 1) citizens’ knowledge about government provision of the basic services of education, health, water; 2) baseline conditions in schools, health facilities, and communities (quality of service); 2) citizens’ access to and use of information channels and media; 4) self-perceptions and indicators of agency and action; and 5) test emerging and intriguing hypotheses. For each broad purpose, establishing what is known at this point enables assessments of change over time. Thus, the overall design of the evaluation calls for follow-up randomized national-level surveys in Year 5 to assess changes and to test the same and new hypotheses. Obviously, baseline surveys are designed to establish initial conditions against which effects or changes can be compared.