Environmental Conservation Faculty Publication Series

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 442
  • Publication
    Relative importance of early-successional forests and shrubland habitats to mammals in the northeastern United States
    (2003-01-01) Fuller, TK; DeStefano, S
    The majority of the 60 native terrestrial mammal species that reside in the northeastern United States (US) utilize resources from several habitats on a seasonal basis. However, as many as 20 species demonstrate some preference for early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats. A few of these (e.g. lagomorphs) can be considered obligate users of these habitats, and the specialist carnivores (e.g. felids) that prey on them may consequently also prefer such habitats. Other mammal species that prefer these habitats certainly depend on them to lesser and varying degrees; thus, the consequences of reducing or eliminating early-successional forests, shrublands, or old-field habitats across the landscape will likely have varying demographic consequences, and thus importance, to those species.
  • Publication
    Ferret badger Melogale moschata activity, movements, and den site use in southeastern China
    (2003-01-01) Wang, HB; Fuller, TK
    We conducted field studies of ferret badgersMelogale moschata (Gray, 1831) during March–November 1994 and May–July 1996 at Taohong Village in southeastern China. Capture data suggested that they gave birth in May, and telemetry data on 11 individuals indicated that they were nocturnal. Size of resting home ranges (daybed locations only;n ≥ 20 re-locations) of 6 individuals averaged 11 ha (range 1–25 ha) and no sex-specific differences in size were detected. Distances between daily resting sites averaged 101 m, but ferret badgers often (51% of occasions) returned to sites used the previous day. Ferret badgers readily used a variety of shelters as daybeds, including rodent dens (47%), firewood stacks (20%), open fields (17%), and rock piles (5%) around houses. Key words Melogale moschata -activity-China-den-home range-movements.
  • Publication
    Demographic responses of Virginia opossums to limitation at their northern boundary
    (2004-01-01) Kanda, LL; Fuller, TK
    The precise response of a population at its distributional edge to the limiting extrinsic factor should be mediated by the demography of the species. We applied this principle to understanding the northern distributional potential of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792). We reviewed the literature for demographic data that we then used to build model populations. Juvenile over-winter survival was adjusted to determine the survival necessary for a stable population. To put the results in the context of life-history strategy and ecological niche, we built models for two other medium-sized mammals with similar distributions, the raccoon (Procyon lotor (L., 1758)) and the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus (L., 1766)). Northern raccoon populations may sustain juvenile winter survival rates of <0.50 because adult females live to reproduce in multiple years. Muskrat juveniles may need a winter survival rate of only 0.40 in average years because reproduction is very high. In contrast, young northern opossums need a survival rate of 0.81 over winter to compensate for low prewinter survival. Raccoons and muskrats, through different life-history strategies, should be able to expand their northern distribution to the winter-induced physiological limit. However, opossum populations should fail before the average individual physiological limit is reached.
  • Publication
    Assessing an American Marten, Martes americana, reintroduction in Vermont
    (2003-01-01) Moruzzi, TL; Royar, KJ; Grove, C; Brooks, RT; Bernier, C; Thompson, FL; DeGraaf, RM; Fuller, TK
    During October-December 1989-1991, biologists from the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department and the USDA Forest Service reintroduced 115 (88 male, 27 female) American Martens (Martes americana) into the southern half of the Green Mountain National Forest. During the years of release, brief radio-contact was made with 9 of the 13 (8 male, 5 female) radiocollared animals, and several of these may have established residency. Results of winter track count surveys suggested the presence of at least four Martens in 1990. During winter 1994-1995, Trailmaster® cameras and boxed camera systems detected Martens at two, and Fishers (Martes pennanti) at 11, of 20 sites. During winter 1997-1998, Fishers were detected at 37 of 47 boxed camera sites, but no Martens were detected. During summer 1997 and 1998, no Marten photos were recorded at 285 pressure-plate camera stations in a larger area that included all Marten release sites. Although post-release monitoring may have been insufficient to definitively confirm Marten presence, results from the 1997 and 1998 camera surveys indicate that a viable population of Martens was not established in southern Vermont, perhaps due to competition with Fishers.
  • Publication
    Food habits of four sympatric carnivores in southeastern China
    (2003-01-01) Wang, H; Fuller, TK
    The food habits and diet overlap of four sympatric small carnivore species were studied in a rural agricultural area of southeastern China by analyzing 37-112 scats of each species. Small Indian civets (Viverricula indica) ate mostly mammals, with moderate insect and plant components. Crab-eating mongooses (Herpestes urva) ate mammals, reptiles, insects, and crustaceans. Masked palm civets (Paguma Larvata) ate some mammals and insects, but mostly plants (fruits). Hog badgers (Arctonyx collaris) ate more mammals and gastropods than the other carnivores. Although diets were distinctly different, diet overlap among these species was relatively high and we speculate that this might reflect low population density due to harvesting by humans and secondary poisoning, and/or high rodent densities near agricultural-lands.