Astronomy Department Faculty Publication Series

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 959
  • Publication
    Evolution of Clustering and Bias in a Lambda-CDM Universe
    (1999) Dave, R; Hernquist, L; Katz, N; Weinberg, DH
    We determine the evolution from $z=3\to 0$ of the galaxy and mass correlation functions and bias factor in a $50h^{-1}$Mpc $\Lambda$CDM hydrodynamic simulation with $10h^{-1}$kpc resolution. The mass correlation function grows with time, but the galaxy correlation function shows little evolution and is well described by a power law. At early times, galaxies are biased traces of mass, with bias being higher on smaller scales. By z=0, galaxies trace the mass, and the bias shows little scale dependence.
  • Publication
    Feedback and Recycled Wind Accretion: Assembling the z = 0 Galaxy Mass Function
    (2010-01-01) Oppenheimer, BD; Dave, R; Keres, D; Fardal, M; Katz, N; Kollmeier, JA; Weinberg, D
    We analyse cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include observationally-constrained prescriptions for galactic outflows. If these simulated winds accurately represent winds in the real Universe, then material previously ejected in winds provides the dominant source of gas infall for new star formation at redshifts z<1. This recycled wind accretion, or wind mode, provides a third physically distinct accretion channel in addition to the "hot" and "cold" modes emphasised in recent theoretical studies. Because of the interaction between outflows and gas in and around halos, the recycling timescale of wind material (t_rec) is shorter in higher-mass systems, which reside in denser gaseous environments. In these simulations, this differential recycling plays a central role in shaping the present-day galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). If we remove all particles that were ever ejected in a wind, then the predicted GSMFs are much steeper than observed; galaxy masses are suppressed both by the direct removal of gas and by the hydrodynamic heating of their surroundings, which reduces subsequent infall. With wind recycling included, the simulation that incorporates our favoured momentum-driven wind scalings reproduces the observed GSMF for stellar masses 10^9 < M < 5x10^10 Msolar. At higher masses, wind recycling leads to excessive galaxy masses and excessive star formation rates relative to observations. In these massive systems, some quenching mechanism must suppress the re-accretion of gas ejected from star-forming galaxies. In short, as has long been anticipated, the form of the GSMF is governed by outflows; the unexpected twist here for our simulated winds is that it is not primarily the ejection of material but how the ejected material is re-accreted that governs the GSMF.
  • Publication
    Galactic outflows and the kinematics of damped Lyman alpha absorbers
    (2010-01-01) Hong, S; Katz, N; Dave, R; Fardal, M; Keres, D; Oppenheimer, B
    The kinematics of damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs) are difficult to reproduce in hierarchical galaxy formation models, particularly the preponderance of wide systems. We investigate DLA kinematics at z=3 using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that include a heuristic model for galactic outflows. Without outflows, our simulations fail to yield enough wide DLAs, as in previous studies. With outflows, predicted DLA kinematics are in much better agreement with observations. Comparing two outflow models, we find that a model based on momentum-driven wind scalings provides the best match to the observed DLA kinematic statistics of Prochaska & Wolfe. In this model, DLAs typically arise a few kpc away from galaxies that would be identified in emission. Narrow DLAs can arise from any halo and galaxy mass, but wide ones only arise in halos with mass >10^11 Mo, from either large central or small satellite galaxies. This implies that the success of this outflow model originates from being most efficient at pushing gas out from small satellite galaxies living in larger halos. This increases the cross-section for large halos relative to smaller ones, thereby yielding wider kinematics. Our simulations do not include radiative transfer effects or detailed metal tracking, and outflows are modeled heuristically, but they strongly suggest that galactic outflows are central to understanding DLA kinematics. An interesting consequence is that DLA kinematics may place constraints on the nature and efficiency of gas ejection from high-z galaxies.
  • Publication
    Hubble Flow Broadening of the Lyman-alpha Forest and its Implications
    (1997) Weinberg, DH; Hernquist, L; Katz, N; Croft, R; Miralda-Escude, J
    Lyman-alpha forest lines in QSO spectra have typical widths of 20-50 km/s. Low column density absorbers in cosmological simulations are large, diffuse structures, and the Hubble flow across the spatially extended absorber is usually the dominant contribution to the width of its associated absorption line. Thermal broadening is unimportant over most of the spectrum, and peculiar velocities tend to make absorption features narrower rather than broader. As a consequence of Hubble flow broadening, there is a close relation between local Lyman-alpha optical depth and local neutral hydrogen density, which is well approximated by the Gunn-Peterson formula. The physics that governs the unshocked intergalactic medium leads to a tight correlation between the neutral hydrogen density and the underlying gas and dark matter overdensity. For many purposes, it is simpler to regard a Lyman-alpha forest spectrum as a continuous, non-linear map of the density field rather than a collection of discrete lines. This continuous field view of the Lyman-alpha forest can be applied to measurement of the baryon density parameter, testing of cosmological models, and robust determination of the shape and amplitude of the primordial mass power spectrum.
  • Publication
    Metal Lines in Cosmological Models of Lyman-Alpha Absorbers
    (1997) Hellsten, U; Hernquist, L; Katz, N; Weinberg, D
    The metal absorption lines found in association with \lya absorbers of moderate to high HI column density contain valuable information about the metallicity and ionization conditions within the absorbers and offer a stronger test of models of the intergalactic medium at \sim 3$ than HI absorption lines alone. We have developed a method to predict the strengths of metal absorption lines within the framework of cosmological models for the \lya forest. The method consists of evaluating a quantity, the Line Observability Index, for a database of hundreds of candidate metal lines, allowing a comprehensive identification of the lines the model predicts to be detectable associated with a \lya absorber of a given HI column density and metallicity. Applying this technique to a particular class of models at \sim 2-4$, we predict that the OVI(1032 \AA, 1038 \AA) doublet is the only practical probe of the metallicity of low column density absorbers (HI \simlt 10^{14.5} cm^{-2}$), that CIV (1548 \AA) is the strongest line with rest wavelength $\lambda_r > 1216$ \AA{} regardless of HI$, and that the strongest metal lines should be CIII(977 \AA) and SiIII(1206.5 \AA), which peak at HI \sim 10^{17} cm^{-2}$.