Historical plant sales (HPS) database: Documenting the spatiotemporal history of plant sales in the conterminous U.S.


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Biodiversity heritage library, horticulture, introduced plants, invasive plants, native plants, nursery sales, ornamental plants


Horticulture | Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology


The purpose of this database was to extract, standardize, and geocode the historical trade of vascular and non-vascular plant taxa sold in the horticultural industry of the conterminous United States. The HPS database aims to serve as a resource for analysis of contemporary patterns of introduced and invasive plants as well as for identifying opportunities to expand native plant sales in horticulture. Key data sources that make up this database include the Biodiversity Heritage Library's Seed and Nursery Catalog Collection, and the book Restoring American Gardens by D.W. Adams.



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This research was supported by Grant No. G19AC00091 from the U.S. Geological Survey Northeast Climate Adaptation Science Center graduate fellowship awarded to M. Fertakos, a National Science Foundation graduate research fellowship Grant number 1451512 awarded to E. Beaury, and the Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (CAFE) Summer Scholars program supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station and the Department of Environmental Conservation under Project No. MAS00033 awarded to N. Ford. N. Kinlock is funded by the German Research Foundation DFG (Grant No. 432253815).


Two versions of this dataset are available

HPSv1.0 and HPSv1.1

Both versions are included in the main download and the individual versions are also available.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication 1.0 License.

Historical plant sales (HPS) database: Documenting the spatiotemporal history of plant sales in the conterminous U.S.