This paper analyzes the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) by social movements in Brazil, especially during the 2018 presidential elections won by Far Right candidate Jair Bolsonaro. I argue that techno-deterministic behavior of Brazilian leftist groups contributed to Jair Bolsonaro's victory. A broader analysis of Brazilian crisis of hegemony is made to understand the context in which social movements and digital activists act. I also criticize the concept of tactical media from a Gramscian approach. Brazilian digital activists abandoned tactical use of social media made in June 2013’s demonstrations and acted guided from a techno-deterministic belief in ICT powers. That way, those activists end up letting their political actions follow an algorithmic logic that we call encoded activism.
"From Tactical Media to Coded Activism: Techno-determinism and Strategic Fails in Media Uses by Brazilian Progressive Social Movements in Bolsonaro's Electoral Victory,"
Democratic Communiqué: Vol. 28
, Article 5.
Available at: https://scholarworks.umass.edu/democratic-communique/vol28/iss2/5