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Exercise induced muscle damage: Plasma glutathione, creatine kinase activity, and gene expression profiling of neutrophils

Joohyung Lee, University of Massachusetts Amherst


Eccentric muscle contractions induce ultrastructural disruption, prolonged loss of maximal strength (MVC) and range of motion (ROM), increase in muscle soreness (SOR) and muscle proteins, and secondary damage by inflammation. The overall purpose of this dissertation research was to further examine the relationship between blood glutathione (GSH) levels and the blood creatine kinase (CK) response to eccentric exercise, and the inflammatory response, specifically neutrophil function. Study I examined the effect of resting GSH levels on CK activity after eccentric muscle contractions, and Study II examined the effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on resting GSH levels in plasma. Study III examined the effect of eccentric muscle contractions on neutrophil function by examining gene expression of neutrophils after eccentric muscle contractions to determine which genes are up-regulated or down-regulated during initiation of inflammation. It was concluded from Study I that subjects in the low GSH group experienced less muscle damage than subjects in the high GSH group, and these changes for the low GSH group were consistent with less secondary damage due to inflammation. Study II concluded that LA supplementation for 4 weeks may not be enough to increase GSH levels in low GSH group. Study III concluded that neutrophils initiate several processes including inflammation, cytoskeletal regulation, transcription, and metabolism in response to eccentric muscle contractions with the evidence of up- or down-regulation of genes.

Subject Area

Sports medicine|Anatomy & physiology|Animals

Recommended Citation

Lee, Joohyung, "Exercise induced muscle damage: Plasma glutathione, creatine kinase activity, and gene expression profiling of neutrophils" (2004). Doctoral Dissertations Available from Proquest. AAI3136749.