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Simian virus 40 infectious entry by a caveolae pathway does not directly involve MHC class I proteins

Howard Alan Anderson, University of Massachusetts Amherst


Viral infection of cells often requires many host cell factors. Despite the identification of numerous viral receptor molecules relatively little is known about the roles of these molecules in viral entry, and intracellular targeting. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins are components of the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) cell surface receptor. This interaction between virus and host cell is of interest since MHC class I proteins have typically been studied for their importance in cellular immune responses. MHC class I proteins acquire antigenic peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). SV40 is unique in its ability to target the ER from the cell surface. Thus, the possibility exists that surface MHC class I proteins may recycle and target the ER. A major question is do MHC class I proteins internalize and target SV40 to the ER. The goal of this thesis was to better characterize SV40 entry, and determine if MHC class I proteins are directly involved in viral internalization. Basic studies were therefore conducted to determine the fate of MHC class I proteins on fibroblasts. SV40 entry into cells was found to occur rather slowly. The majority of preadsorbed virions remain at the cell surface for up to 2.5 hours. Furthermore, three hours were required for preadsorbed SV40 to internalize and escape antiserum neutralization. This suggests that SV40 infectious entry is relatively slow. Cytosol acidification greatly reduced clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but had no inhibitory effect on SV40 infectious entry. Therefore, SV40 infectious entry does not occur by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Treatment of cells with PMA, nystatin, or filipin prevents internalization via caveolae. All three treatments prevented SV40 infectious entry. Thus, caveolae may be the sites of SV40 penetration into cells. To evaluate the role of MHC class I proteins in SV40 endocytosis, cell surface proteins were labeled with $\sp{125}$I. Protease treatment of cells was used to distinguish proteins that have internalized from those remaining at the cell surface. Protease resistant $\sp{125}$I-MHC class I proteins were not detected in the absence, or presence of SV40. Furthermore, a $\sp{125}$I-MHC class I protein-specific monoclonal antibody did not internalize into cells. These results suggest that surface MNC class I proteins are not internalized into cells, and SV40 does not induce their internalization. Truncated $\sp{125}$I-MHC class I proteins were detected in the media. 1,10-phenanthroline prevented accumulation of $\sp{125}$I-MHC class I proteins in the media. Thus, metalloprotease activity is involved in shedding of surface MHC class I proteins from CV-1 cells. The loss of the B$\sb2$-microglobulin subunit from the MHC class I heavy chain was found to precede metalloprotease cleavage of the heavy chain. Collectively, these results suggest that the fate of MHC class I proteins on fibroblast is shedding into the media, and these molecules are probably not directly involved in SV40 entry.

Subject Area

Cellular biology|Microbiology|Immunology

Recommended Citation

Anderson, Howard Alan, "Simian virus 40 infectious entry by a caveolae pathway does not directly involve MHC class I proteins" (1996). Doctoral Dissertations Available from Proquest. AAI9619367.