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Nonverbal expressions of emotion: Two models of gender and status differences
Many gender differences in nonverbal behavior have been identified, but the ontogeny of these differences has as yet not been explained. Status differences between men and women are often suggested as a likely cause, but recent evidence suggests that social norms operating within gender groups, and not between them, are responsible. The current project attempted to elucidate the relations among gender, status, and nonverbal facial expressions of emotion by testing two causal possibilities. The results of Study I suggests that effectively encoding gender-appropriate emotions may influence social status. The results of Study II suggest that men's, but not women's, status may influence their expressive behavior.
Coats, Erik Justin, "Nonverbal expressions of emotion: Two models of gender and status differences" (1996). Doctoral Dissertations Available from Proquest. AAI9709585.