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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Computer Science

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Andrew McCallum

Subject Categories

Applied Statistics | Artificial Intelligence and Robotics


We introduce structured prediction energy networks (SPENs), a flexible frame- work for structured prediction. A deep architecture is used to define an energy func- tion over candidate outputs and predictions are produced by gradient-based energy minimization. This deep energy captures dependencies between labels that would lead to intractable graphical models, and allows us to automatically discover discrim- inative features of the structured output. Furthermore, practitioners can explore a wide variety of energy function architectures without having to hand-design predic- tion and learning methods for each model. This is because all of our prediction and learning methods interact with the energy only via the standard interface for deep networks: forward and back-propagation. In a variety of applications, we find that we can obtain better accuracy using approximate minimization of non-convex deep energy functions than baseline models that employ simple energy functions for which exact minimization is tractable.