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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Michael P. Krezmien

Subject Categories

Disability and Equity in Education | Special Education and Teaching


Inclusive education has become one of the primary goals of education policy across the world in order to achieve education for all. However, there have been various interpretations with respect to what constitutes inclusive education. In addition, limited research exists on teachers’ perceptions, knowledge, and competencies related to inclusive education and students with special needs. The purpose of preliminary research in this study was to validate the Turkish version of the International Survey of Inclusion. The purpose of the second study was to examine Turkish teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and skills about inclusion of students with diverse learning and behavioral needs. The preliminary analyses showed that the Turkish version of the instrument was valid and reliable measure to assess Turkish teachers’ perceptions about inclusion. For the second study, the data were collected from a total of 397 Turkish general and special educators at in-service and pre-service level. Results indicated that Turkish educators viewed inclusion as placing students with special needs in general education settings. In addition, results showed that Turkish educators had positive perceptions about their knowledge and skills in order to teach students with special needs in inclusive settings; however, they had less positive beliefs with regards to inclusion of students with special needs in general education classrooms. Additionally, Turkish teachers’ perceptions of inclusive education varied by different types of disability categories. Results also showed that special and general educators at in-service and pre-service levels could not be properly predicted by their perceived knowledge and skills. Despite the positive perceptions about knowledge and skills, the participants demonstrated a lack of strategic knowledge used to support students with specific learning disabilities and emotional behavioral disorders. Implications for practice and future directions based upon the findings were discussed.