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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Genevieve E. Chandler

Subject Categories

Critical Care Nursing | Nursing Administration


The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions in the work environment that may contribute to caring efficacy of critical care nurses in Puerto Rico. The study measured nurses’ perceptions of the empowering structures in the work environment, and the relationship to their perceived caring efficacy and explored the correlation between sociodemographic factors of age, education, and experience of work empowerment and/or caring efficacy. The Conditions for Work Effectiveness Questionnaire and Caring Efficacy Scale were used to assess the association between the nurses’ work environment conditions and caring efficacy. The instruments were translated to Spanish and adapted to the Puerto Rican culture. Using convenience sampling, the instruments were paired and administered to nurses from selected critical care units of hospitals in Puerto Rico. Participation was voluntary. Findings support that there is no relationship between the working conditions environment and caring efficacy. Supplemental findings, however, support a significant positive correlation between relationships with patients and families and caring efficacy.