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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Cristine Smith

Second Advisor

Jacqueline Mosselson

Fourth Advisor

A. Leah Wing

Subject Categories

Adult and Continuing Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | International and Comparative Education | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching | Secondary Education | Secondary Education and Teaching | Teacher Education and Professional Development


Formative Classroom Assessment (FCA) can be the single most powerful activity to promote students’ learning (Hattie, 2009). In Bangladesh FCA is not in practice (Ahsan, 2009). Policies and teacher preparation on FCA are the two factors that influence the practice of formative assessment in classrooms (Stiggins, 1999; Plake, 1993). In my research I aimed to learn how different actors, discourses, and materials come together to produce policies on FCA in policy network and translate the policies in a Teachers’ Training College (TTC), and in classrooms in an urban school. I used ‘critical socio-cultural approach to policy as practice’ (Levinson, Sutton & Winstead, 2009) as a theoretical framework to inform my study. Actor Network Theory (Latour, 2005) was used as an analytical tool to analyze data to explore how different human and non-human actors assemble together to produce policy and translate policy into practice. I used Vertical Case Study (Vavrus and Bartlett, 2006) as a research method to collect data from national, regional, and local. At national level, I interviewed five policy actors and analyzed policy document related to FCA. At regional level, in a TTC, I interviewed the principal of the TTC, six trainers and one practice teacher; observed 14 sessions related to classroom assessment; conducted FGDs with four different trainee groups of pre and inservice teachers; analyzed training manuals and presentations. At local level in an urban school, I interviewed the head teacher, eight teachers, and the supervisor; observed 18 classes; conducted FGDs with two groups of parents and two groups of students; and analyzed CA related materials, such as tests and lesson plans. Findings reveal that at national level FCA has been termed differently in different policy documents with sporadic interventions. The policy document does not focus on FCA. For the teacher preparation at TTC, the trainers focus teaching mostly on summative assessment. At school there are new teachers who do not have any education or training on FCA. The limited knowledge and skills that experienced teachers acquire from TTC are also restrained by different factors, such as lack of resources and physical facilities, high teacher-student ration, teachers’ low motivation, lack of support from the school and community when they try to apply.