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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Computer Science

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Emery D. Berger

Subject Categories

OS and Networks | Programming Languages and Compilers


The web browser is the most important application runtime today, encompassing all types of applications on practically every Internet-connected device. Browsers power complete office suites, media players, games, and augmented and virtual reality experiences, and they integrate with cameras, microphones, GPSes, and other sensors available on computing devices. Many apparently native mobile and desktop applications are secretly hybrid apps that contain a mix of native and browser code. History has shown that when new devices, sensors, and experiences appear on the market, the browser will evolve to support them. Despite the browser's importance, developing web applications is exceedingly difficult. Web browsers organically evolved from a document viewer into a ubiquitous program runtime. The browser's scripting language for web designers, JavaScript, has grown into the only universally supported programming language in the browser. Unfortunately, JavaScript is notoriously difficult to write and debug. The browser's high-level and event-driven I/O interfaces make it easy to add simple interactions to webpages, but these same interfaces lead to nondeterministic bugs and performance issues in larger applications. These bugs are challenging for developers to reason about and fix. This dissertation revisits web development and provides developers with a complete set of development tools with full support for the browser environment. McFly is the first time-traveling debugger for the browser, and lets developers debug web applications and their visual state during time-travel; components of this work shipped in Microsoft's ChakraCore JavaScript engine. BLeak is the first system for automatically debugging memory leaks in web applications, and provides developers with a ranked list of memory leaks along with the source code responsible for them. BCause constructs a causal graph of a web application's events, which helps developers understand their code's behavior. Doppio lets developers run code written in conventional languages in the browser, and Browsix brings Unix into the browser to enable unmodified programs expecting a Unix-like environment to run directly in the browser. Together, these five systems form a solid foundation for web development.