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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Maciej Ciesielski

Subject Categories

Computer Engineering | Digital Circuits | Hardware Systems | VLSI and Circuits, Embedded and Hardware Systems


A considerable progress has been made in recent years in verification of arithmetic circuits such as multipliers, fused multiply-adders, multiply-accumulate, and other components of arithmetic datapaths, both in integer and finite field domain. However, the verification of hardware dividers and square-root functions have received only a limited attention from the verification community, with a notable exception for theorem provers and other inductive, non-automated systems. Division, square root, and transcendental functions are all tied to the basic Intel architecture and proving correctness of such algorithms is of grave importance. Although belonging to the same iterative-subtract class of architectures, they widely differ from each other. IEEE floating point standard specifies square-rooting and division as basic arithmetic operation alongside the usual three basic operations. The difficulty of formally verifying hardware implementation of a divider/square-root can be attributed mostly to the modeling of its characteristic function and the high memory complexity required by standard algebraic approach. The work proposed in this thesis discusses formal verification of combinational divider and square-root circuits. Specifically, it addresses the problem of formally verifying gate-level circuits using an algebraic model. In contrast to standard verification approaches using satisfiability (SAT) or equivalence checking, the proposed method verifies whether the gate-level circuit actually performs the intended function or not, without a need for a reference design. Firstly, we present a verification methodology for a constant divider, where the divisor value is fixed to a constant integer. Albeit simpler case of verification, it provides us with the basic understanding of verification techniques and the underlying issues applicable to divider verification. Secondly, a layered verification approach is proposed for the verification of generic array dividers. Finally, the work proposed in this thesis will further analyze the divider and square-root circuits and aim to curb the memory explosion issue experienced by computer algebra based verification methods in order to successfully verify large bit-width divider-type arithmetic circuits. More specifically, a novel idea of "hardware rewriting" is introduced, which avoids the high memory complexity. The mentioned technique verifies a 256-bit gate-level square-root circuit with around 260,000 gates in just under 18 minutes and 127-bit gate-level divider circuit in under one minute.