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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

R. Inanç Baykur

Subject Categories

Geometry and Topology


We construct families of smoothly irreducible embeddings of surfaces in the 4-sphere, corresponding to a range of normal Euler numbers. We also describe a procedure to produce equivariant symplectic sums of real symplectic 4-manifolds. For explicit real symplectic involutions on pairs of symplectic 4-manifolds the conditions for the existence of equivariant symplectic sums can be detected combinatorially. Such sums are sought for potential new constructions of families of irreducible knotted surfaces in fixed four manifolds.


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License