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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Polymer Science and Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Ryan C. Hayward

Second Advisor

Todd S. Emrick

Third Advisor

Michael D. Barnes

Subject Categories

Polymer and Organic Materials


In recent years material constraints have become the limiting factor in several fields, including batteries, robotics, and medicine, and these needs have prompted the development of materials with programmable properties. To this end, much effort has been dedicated to designing metamaterials that have unprecedented optical, mechanical, and thermal properties, along with systems for additive manufacturing to build their complex structures with high precision and throughput. The field of additive manufacturing has proved to be a platform for innovation across many industries yet is still limited with regards to feature sizes, print rates, and diversity of materials. Mechanical devices like linkages have been used to construct metamaterial architectures but designing with compliant materials has proved challenging. This thesis focuses on additive manufacturing for two main thrusts: application of light-based 3D printing to study how compliant materials change the behavior of linkage systems, and development of a new 3D printing method for sub-micron additive manufacturing. In Chapter 2, 4-bar linkages are studied and compliant bistable beams are used to achieve drastic changes in possible linkage configurations. In Chapter 3, sub-micron resolution additive manufacturing is demonstrated using triplet-triplet annihilation, which requires only inexpensive light emitting diode light sources rather than pulsed lasers. In Chapter 4, catalysts and responsive materials are used to achieve chemomechanical motion. Lastly, in Chapter 5, an outlook is presented for the future of the field of additive manufacturing and areas of further study are identified.


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License