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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Public Health

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Dr. Laura Balzer

Second Advisor

Dr. Raji Balasubramanian

Third Advisor

Dr. Ted Westling

Subject Categories



Analysis of clustered data from randomized trials or observational data often poses theoretical and practical statistical challenges, including but not limited to small numbers of independent units, many adjustment variables, continuous exposures, and/or differential clustering across trial arms. Further, commonly-used parametric methods rely on assumptions that may be violated in practice. Motivated by three scientific questions in public health, methods are developed and/or demonstrated for non-parametric estimation of causal effects. In Chapter 1, methods are elaborated for a cluster randomized trial (CRT) with missing individual-level data at baseline and follow-up, a complex sampling strategy, and limited number of clusters. Chapter 2 extends methods for CRTs with few independent units and partial clustering by trial arm. Chapter 3 demonstrates the theory and practical implementation of causal effect estimation for a ‘shift’ of a continuous exposure.


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Available for download on Friday, September 01, 2023

Included in

Biostatistics Commons