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Author ORCID Identifier


Campus-Only Access for Five (5) Years

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Michael Krezmien

Second Advisor

Ian Barron

Third Advisor

Shane Hammond

Subject Categories

Clinical Psychology | Disability and Equity in Education | Psychology


Trauma impacts all areas of life domains in most African American males. Scantily explored and studied, the effects of trauma on African American males have reached critical epidemic levels. Leading indicators of mental health, educational achievement, attainment, and life satisfaction paint and picture of a population failing to thrive. This is mainly due to interventions incongruent with essential elements of identity. Therefore, new interventions must be developed incorporating a unique trauma profile and elements of uniqueness to remediate the effects of long-term trauma in this population.


Available for download on Thursday, February 03, 2028