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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Stephen A. Paparo

Second Advisor

Lisa J. Lehmberg

Third Advisor

Jonathan Ong

Subject Categories

Music Education


The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions and experiences of collegiate music education students’ perceptions and experiences in secondary U.S. music classrooms as they pertain to classroom climate, safe spaces, and academic/inclusive practices for LGBTQ+ students. Six hundred sixty-six emails were sent to music education coordinators and music department chairs inviting undergraduate music education majors to participate in the research study, which resulted in 143 participants. Findings from the study indicated that nearly two-thirds of the participants considered the secondary school music classroom a safe environment, and choice of concert uniform attire and use of personal pronouns were the two most discussed inclusive practices. Music educators need to continue to provide all students safe learning environments where they can discover their own personal identities without fear of repercussions, discover who they are through their own personal journey with creating and performing music, and know that they are seen, they are heard, they are valid, and they are never alone on their personal musical journeys.