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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Tilman Wolf

Second Advisor

Michael Zink

Third Advisor

Beatriz Lorenzo

Fourth Advisor

Anna Nagurney

Subject Categories

Digital Communications and Networking | Economics


Economic transactions typically involve only the parties directly involved, known as single-hop economic exchange. However, this model has limitations since only the final contributors participate in the resource exchange and acquire ownership of resources from previous contributors. In contrast, distributed systems aggregate resources from multiple entities across multiple hops. In Web 3.0, everyone can be a content creator and take ownership of their creations. To address this issue, we propose a value tree model that includes all contributors and enables multi-hop and asynchronous resource exchange. We propose two different approaches to implement the value tree model: value tree single contract, where all functions are implemented in a single smart contract, and value tree recursive contracts, where recursive smart contracts are set up in the value tree. We have implemented a proof-of-concept experimental system using Ethereum and evaluated its gas cost performance. We also discuss the potential applications of the value tree model in various contexts. Additionally, we propose three approaches for enabling data processing within a content-centric networking context. In Named Data Networking, we demonstrate that network functions can be effectively implemented and invoked by end systems or intermediate nodes to transparently enforce network policies. We also discuss the implementation considerations and various test scenarios that have been evaluated using the ndnSIM simulator. In response to the shift towards content-centric networking in Web 3.0, we propose the Value Tree Named Data Networking (VNDN) framework, which enables users to pay for the content they consume directly rather than through intermediary services. The VNDN framework leverages the value tree contracts to facilitate fair and transparent payment for content while incentivizing nodes in the network to cache content, provide content, and process data. Our study also includes an analysis of the optimal payment splitting ratio among nodes and the implementation of the threshold propagation method in the smart contracts to minimize overhead. Our proposed framework represents a significant step forward in the development of innovative content monetization strategies and has the potential to transform the way we consume and pay for content on the internet.


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

Available for download on Sunday, May 26, 2024