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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Computer Science

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Subhransu Maji

Subject Categories

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics


Deep learning has significantly advanced computer vision in the past decade, paving the way for practical applications such as facial recognition and autonomous driving. However, current techniques depend heavily on human supervision, limiting their broader deployment. This dissertation tackles this problem by introducing algorithms and theories to minimize human supervision in three key areas: data, annotations, and neural network architectures, in the context of various visual understanding tasks such as object detection, image restoration, and 3D generation.

First, we present self-supervised learning algorithms to handle in-the-wild images and videos that traditionally require time-consuming manual curation and labeling. We demonstrate that when a deep network is trained to be invariant to geometric and photometric transformations, representations from its intermediate layers are highly predictive of object semantic parts such as eyes and noses. This insight offers a simple unsupervised learning framework that significantly improves the efficiency and accuracy of few-shot landmark prediction and matching. We then present a technique for learning single-view 3D object pose estimation models by utilizing in-the-wild videos where objects turn (e.g., cars in roundabouts). This technique achieves competitive performance with respect to existing state-of-the-art without requiring any manual labels during training. We also contribute an Accidental Turntables Dataset, containing a challenging set of 41,212 images of cars in cluttered backgrounds, motion blur, and illumination changes that serve as a benchmark for 3D pose estimation.

Second, we address variations in labeling styles across different annotators, which leads to a type of noisy label referred to as heterogeneous label. This variability in human annotation can cause subpar performance during both the training and testing phases. To mitigate this, we have developed a framework that models the labeling styles of individual annotators, reducing the impact of human annotation variations and enhancing the performance of standard object detection models. We have also applied this framework to analyze ecological data, which are often collected opportunistically across different case studies without consistent annotation guidelines. Through this application, we have obtained several insightful observations into large-scale bird migration behaviors and their relationship to climate change.

Our next study explores the challenges of designing neural networks, an area that lacks a comprehensive theoretical understanding. By linking deep neural networks with Gaussian processes, we propose a novel Bayesian interpretation of the deep image prior, which parameterizes a natural image as the output of a convolutional network with random parameters and random input. This approach offers valuable insights to optimize the design of neural networks for various image restoration tasks.

Lastly, we introduce several machine-learning techniques to reconstruct and edit 3D shapes from 2D images with minimal human effort. We first present a generic multi-modal generative model that bridges 2D images and 3D shapes via a shared latent space, and demonstrate its applications on versatile 3D shape generation and manipulation tasks. Additionally, we develop a framework for joint estimation of 3D neural scene representation and camera poses. This approach outperforms prior works and allows us to operate in the general SE(3) camera pose setting, unlike the baselines. The results also indicate this method can be complementary to classical structure-from-motion (SfM) pipelines as it compares favorably to SfM on low-texture and low-resolution images.


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.