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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Sandip Kundu

Second Advisor

Maciej Ciesielski

Third Advisor

Daniel Holcomb

Fourth Advisor

Hava Siegelmann

Subject Categories

VLSI and Circuits, Embedded and Hardware Systems


With CMOS scaling extending transistors to nanometer regime, process variations from manufacturing impacts modern IC design. Fortunately, such variations have enabled an emerging hardware security primitive - Physically Unclonable Function. Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are hardware primitives which utilize disorder from manufacturing variations for their core functionality. In contrast to insecure non-volatile key based roots-of-trust, PUFs promise a favorable feature - no attacker, not even the PUF manufacturer can clone the disorder and any attempt at invasive attack will upset that disorder. Despite a decade of research, certain practical problems impede the widespread adoption of PUFs. This dissertation addresses the important problems of (i) post-manufacturing testing, (ii) secure design and (iii) cost efficiency of PUFs. This is with the aim of making PUFs practical and also learning hardware design limitations of disorder based systems.