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Nanoparticle Exposure and Hormetic Dose–Responses: An Update

Abstract
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose–responses induced by nanoparticle exposure. The evidence presented confirmed and extended our previous findings, showing that hormesis is a generalized adaptive response which may be further generalized to nanoscale xenobiotic challenges. Nanoparticle physico-chemical properties emerged as possible features affecting biphasic relationships, although the molecular mechanisms underlining such influences remain to be fully understood, especially in experimental settings resembling long-term and low-dose realistic environmental exposure scenarios. Further investigation is necessary to achieve helpful information for a suitable assessment of nanomaterial risks at the low-dose range for both the ecosystem function and the human health.
Type
article
article
Date
2018-01-01
Publisher
Degree
Advisors
Rights
UMass Amherst Open Access Policy
License
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/