Improving the Active Green Space Ratio in Coastal Cities in Turkey



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The active green space ratio in urban areas in Turkey has been determined as 10 m2 per capita in accordance with the Construction Law no. 3194. However, this ratio couldn’t be reached in most of the cities on the country scale in Turkey. This ratio of green space in urban areas per capita has been determined as 12,68 m2 for Izmir, and 11,52 m2 for Adana which are the two of the case cities of this study. One of the major factors that effect to reach this standard is the extension of the master plan boundaries. In spite of this, this ratio is very low (3,1 m2) in Antalya, the third case city of this study, although the city is one of the most important tourism centers of Turkey (TUIK, 2016, Izmir Metropolitan Municipality, 2013, Manavoglu and Ortacesme, 2007, Adana Metropolitan Municipality, 2016, Antalya Metropolitan Municipality, 2016). The urban transportation network of which the importance and the intensity is increasing depending on the population growth in urban areas effects the environmental factors and the quality of urban life. In coastal cities of Turkey which have rich ecosystem diversity, housing on green areas causes road construction and the harm given to the natural features of the city increase. Main roads and streets fall short depending on population growth in these ever-growing cities and new roads are needed. Roads that take more space than available green fields in cities are continuously in interaction with people from streets to avenues. In this respect, making use of median strips in urban green fields of coastal cities has gained more importance in terms of contributing to the urban aesthetic and ecology. There are many functional and visual positive effects of the road plant that surround the constructional islands, generate the corridors that link the urban green areas and the natural areas around the city (Table 1).

An important condition of the road trees in urban areas to fulfill the functions expected of them depends on their growth and develop as healthy individuals. Whereas some conditions of urban areas such as the urban climate that can be different from the rural areas around the city, soil and environmental pollution, lack of adequate habitats, pollutions caused by human activities may limit the plant growth. In urban areas while the temperature, rainfall, fog occurrence

and the cloudiness increase, rational humidity, radiation, and sunshine duration decrease compared to the rural areas. In urban areas there can be seen an air pollution of dust and particle 10 times, particles as gas form 5 - 25 times more than the rural areas (Harris et al., 2004; Schwets and Brown, 2000). Roads may have difficult conditions for plant growth for various plant types the trees being in the first place. The soil structure of urban areas change and soil compaction occurs depending on various activities which sometimes causes inadequate soil for a tree and its roots (Kadir and Othman, 2012). Nonetheless for the roads to be green is very important for entire city. Greenways are the only features that can link the natural and divided green areas in urban areas (Poracsky and Scoot, 1999; Schaefer, 2003).

In this study, the planting problems in urban roads of some important coastal cities of Turkey such as Adana, Antalya and Izmir have been determined and some solution offers have been tried to develop. Plantation studies in urban roads include several advantages such as ensuring traffic security, forming visual value, having a positive effect on people psychologically and physically, regulating the city climate, decreasing the environment pollution, contributing to the biological diversity by creating a living space for various creatures. In addition, it will be possible to form an organic structure in cities by establishing relationship between green corridors constructed by urban roads and urban green fields and natural fields around the city.