Environmental Justice: A comparison between Budapest (HU), Fortaleza (BR), and Goiânia (BR).



Publication Date

August 2022


Succeeding centuries of technological development, urban society has somehow distanced itself from natural environments. Over the years, many studies related to urban planning, environmental protection, environmental psychology, and landscape design have demonstrated that people's quality of life is directly affected by the quantity and quality of available and accessible "green areas". In the past few years, due to the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic, the mental health problems of urban people have been dramatically intensified. Many cities across the world seek different solutions to lessen the negative effects of the pandemic, of which one is considered to be the provision of urban green spaces (UGSs). Although UGS developments should be in line with the basic principles of environmental justice, in reality, from country to country, even from city to city, there are significant socio-economic inequalities in the availability and accessibility of UGSs. For this reason, the term "environmental justice” becomes a keyword in this study, exploring the differences between two Brazilian cities (Fortaleza and Goiânia) and Budapest, the capital of Hungary. This paper demonstrates the green infrastructure development of the Brazilian cities and Budapest, future and already deployed projects to improve UGSs and their access. Was noticed a difference in the quality and quantity of green spaces within Brazilian cities, through personal observations during the experiences of living in different countries. The article aims to collect information regarding green infrastructure in the urban areas of Goiania and Fortaleza, for the analysis related to Environmental Justice and to compare this to Budapest and its present situation. For further development of Environmental Justice projects for all cities, it is of high importance to study the current green status of these, to ensure a better quality of life for the society.