Behaviour and passage success of upriver-migrating lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in a vertical slot fishway on the Richelieu River, Quebec, Canada
lake sturgeon, sturgeon, vertical slot, spawning, migration, dams, barriers, upstream, upstream passage, adult, Canada, transponder, entrance, passage efficiency, efficiency, activity, fishways
Journal or Book Title
Endangered Species Research
Spawning migrations of sturgeon have been affected by the construction of dams, which create barriers to migration and have contributed to the imperilment of sturgeon. Although devices have been installed to facilitate the upstream passage of fish at barriers, they have been generally unsuccessful and not designed for sturgeon. We examined fine-scale movements of adult lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) during passage through a vertical slot fishway located on the Richelieu River in Quebec, Canada, to determine passage success, passage duration and inter-individual differences in fishway use. Migratory lake sturgeon (n = 107, range 939 to 1625 mm total length [TL]) were captured immediately downstream of the fishway, tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and released into the fishway entrance basin over a period of 2 wk (water temperature 11–20°C). An array of 16 PIT antennas acted as gates to enable quantification of movements within the fishway. Volitional entry into the fishway occurred for most individuals (82.2%), 32 individuals successfully ascended the entire fishway, and overall passage efficiency was 36.4%. Sturgeon exhibited an ability to traverse the fishway quickly (minimum duration of 1.2 h upon entry into the fishway); however, the duration of successful passage events was variable (6.2–75.4 h following release). Neither passage duration nor maximum distance of ascent was correlated with TL or water temperature. Passage behaviour was variable, in some cases resulting in cumulative upstream movements 3 times in excess of fishway length. Passage durations through the 2 turning basins were disproportionately longer compared with other basins; however, the activity of individuals within these and other locations remains unknown and represents an important knowledge gap. Collectively, data from this study contribute to understanding how fishways can be used to facilitate the upstream passage of imperilled sturgeon at dams.