behavior, biological concerns, downstream fish passage, fish passage, food, history, juvenile, physical variables, pipes, predation, prototype, spillway, survival


The data reviewed cover information, both observed and recorded, on fish passage through spillways, natural falls, conduits and pipe systems. Experiments and observations were conducted under prototype and laboratory conditions. Before any synthesis of existing scattered data can proceed, there has to be a recognition of both the variables and the assumptions that are involved in determining the success of the passage of juvenile fish from heights. Biological factors considered were: species and size of fish, condition of fish, numbers of predators, effects of diseases, food availability, feeding habits and behavior patterns. The physical variables considered were: type of spillway, type of bucket or stilling basin, distance of fall (total head), velocity through gate, discharge (cfs), temperature, turbidity, type of recovery gear and methods of release.