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Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.


Large-scale open-pit mines are critical infrastructure for acquiring natural resources. However, this type of mine can experience environmental and safety problems during operations and thus requires continuous monitoring. In this study, a web three-dimensional(3D)-based monitoring system is constructed using geospatial information open platform and open-source geospatial information software which targets open-pit mines in Gangwon-do, Korea. The purpose is to develop a monitoring system of open-pit mines that enables any person to monitor the topographic and environmental changes caused by mine operations and to develop and restore the area’s ecology. Open-pit mines were classified into active or inactive mines and monitoring items and methodologies were established for each type of mine. Cesium which is a WebGL-based open-source platform was chosen as it supports dynamic data visualization and hardware-accelerated graphics related to elapsed time which is the essential factor in the monitoring. The open-pit mine monitoring system was developed based on the geospatial database which contains information required for mine monitoring as time elapses, and by developing the open-source-based system software. The geospatial information database for monitoring consists of digital imagery and terrain data and also includes vector data and the restoration plan datas. The basic geospatial information used in the monitoring includes high resolution ortho image(GSD 0.5 m or above) for all areas of the mines. This is acquired by periodically using an airborne laser scanning system and a LiDAR DEM (grid size 1m × 1 m). In addition, geospatial information data were acquired by using an UAV and terrestrial LiDAR for small-scale areas; these tools are frequently used for rapid and irregular data acquisition. The geospatial information acquired for the monitoring of the open-pit mines represents various spatial resolutions and different terrain data. The database was constructed by converging this geospatial information with the Cesium-based geospatial information open platform of the ESRI World Imagery map and with SDK World Terrain meshes. The problems that resulted from the process of fusing aerial imagery and terrain data were solved in the Cesium-based open source environment. The prototype menu for the monitoring system was designed according to the monitoring item which was determined by the type of mine. The scene of the mine and changes in terrain were controlled and analyzed using the raster function of PostGIS according to the elapsed time. Using the GeoServer, the aerial imagery, terrain and restoration information for each period were serviced using the web standard interface, and the monitoring system was completed by visualizing these elements in Cesium in 3D format according to the elapsed time. This study has established a monitoring methodology for open-pit mines according to the type of mine and proposes a method for upgrading the imagery and terrain data required for monitoring. The study also showed the possibility of developing a Web3D-based open-pit mine monitoring system that is applicable to a wide range of mashup service developments.



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