Workshop Format// Formats des Ateliers

Knowledge Cafe/ Café des connaissances

DOI

https://doi.org/10.7275/snba-6984

Biographical Information // Informations biographiques

Stefania Landi is a member of ICOMOS Italy and ICOMOS-ISC20C since 2016. Master in Building Engineering and Architecture in 2012 at the School of Engineering, University of Pisa, where she earned also her PhD in 2017 and where she is currently research fellow and teaches Architectural Restoration. Between 2015 and 2016, she was visiting PhD Student at the Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles (CA), within the ‘Conserving Modern Architecture Initiative’. Since 2014, she has been presenting her research works in international conferences and journals. Between 2008 and 2010, she worked on landscape planning for architectural and engineering firms based in Lucca.

Concetta Lenza is Full professor of History of Architecture at the Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli since 2001. Member of the Board of Directors of ICOMOS Italy and member of ICOMOS-ISC20C. She is member of Istituto Nazionale Studi sul Rinascimento Meridionale and of the Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Stiftung Bibliothek Werner Oechslin; Ordinary member of the Accademia di Archeologia, Lettere e Belle Arti – Section of the National Society of Scienze, Lettere e Arti of Naples; Corresponding member of the Accademia Etrusca of Cortona and member of the Board of Directors of the Centro di Studi per la Storia dell'Architettura di Roma.

Denise Ulivieri is Professor of History of Architecture at the University of Pisa. She is Member of ICOMOS Italy since 2016. She coordinated the projects “Local seismic cultures. Lunigiana and Garfagnana” and “Documentation, seismic history and level of vulnerability of the minor built heritage in Valtiberina Toscana”. She collaborates with the European University Center for Cultural Heritage in Ravello working on vernacular architecture. She is member of the Accademia degli Euteleti of San Miniato and the Accademia dei Sepolti of Volterra, member of the scientific committee of the "History of architecture of Livorno" series and director of the "Quaderni di ecostoria" series.

Keywords

cultural landscapes; rural heritage; local traditions; 20th century; Twentieth century

Abstract // Résumé

During the 20th Century, rural landscapes all over the world underwent rapid transformations as a result of many factors - including new socio-political and economic conditions, new agricultural practices and the mechanization of agriculture - resulting in radical transformations of land uses and in the introduction of new infrastructures and facilities, necessary for the storage and distribution of an ever increasing amount of products. Based on the existing documents and bibliography relevant to the topic (ICOMOS-IFLA, Principles concerning rural landscapes as heritage, 2017; ICOMOS-ISC20C, Madrid-New Delhi Document. Approaches to the conservation of twentieth-century cultural heritage, 2017; Meeus, Wijermans, Vroom, 1990; Pungetti, Kruse, 2010; Scazzosi, 2018) this Knowledge Cafe aims to analyze how, during the 20th Century, new rural landscapes were created, assuming a historic and cultural significance as witnesses of this crucial period. Significant examples are the land reclamation activities in Europe, the agrarian reforms, the new facilities and transportation networks aimed to support the expanding productions, the new irrigation schemes for agricultural development in inland areas, the realization of model towns. New rural settlements, indeed, were created under totalitarian regimes, whether inside their country or in their colonies, while, after World War II, new settlements were conceived for resettling farmers -often referring to vernacular architecture and rationalist architecture as a model - as a response to the increasing discrepancies between industrialized and rural areas. Finally, it is worth reflecting on the several theoretical proposals for new agrarian societies, in the wake of international examples as the Unité d’Explotation Agricole by Le Corbusier or the Broadacre City by F.L. Wright. Beyond the comparative analysis of rural landscapes of the 20th Century, the final objective will be also to discuss strategies for their sustainable management. (This contribution is developed in collaboration with ICOMOS-ISC20C and ICOMOS Italy working group on 20th Century)

Bibliographic References // Références Bibliographiques

Meeus J.H.A.,Wijermans M.P.,Vroom M.J. (1990) Agricultural Landscapes in Europe and their Transformation, Landscape and Urban Planning, 18(3): 289-352.

Pungetti G., Kruse A. (eds.) (2010). European culture expressed in agricultural landscapes. Perspectives from the Eucaland project.

Scazzosi, L. (2018). Landscapes as systems of tangible and intangible relationships. Small theoretical and methodological introduction to read and evaluate Rural Landscape as Heritage. In Rosina, E., Scazzosi, L. (eds.). The conservation and enhancement of built and landscape heritage. A new life for the ghost village of Mondonico on Lake Como, pp. 19-40. Milan: PoliScript.

Oliver, O. (ed.) (1997). Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Vol. I, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ICOMOS-IFLA (2017). Principles concerning rural landscapes as heritage. Accessed October 2, 2019 https://www.icomos.org/images/DOCUMENTS/General_Assemblies/19th_Delhi_2017/Working_Documents-First_Batch-August_2017/GA2017_6-3-1_RuralLandscapesPrinciples_EN_final20170730.pdf

ICOMOS-ISC20C (2017). Approaches to the conservation of twentieth-century cultural heritage: Madrid New Delhi Document. Accessed October 2, 2019, http://www.icomos-isc20c.org/pdf/madrid-new-delhi-document-2017.pdf

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KC 4.3: Rural landscapes of the 20th Century

During the 20th Century, rural landscapes all over the world underwent rapid transformations as a result of many factors - including new socio-political and economic conditions, new agricultural practices and the mechanization of agriculture - resulting in radical transformations of land uses and in the introduction of new infrastructures and facilities, necessary for the storage and distribution of an ever increasing amount of products. Based on the existing documents and bibliography relevant to the topic (ICOMOS-IFLA, Principles concerning rural landscapes as heritage, 2017; ICOMOS-ISC20C, Madrid-New Delhi Document. Approaches to the conservation of twentieth-century cultural heritage, 2017; Meeus, Wijermans, Vroom, 1990; Pungetti, Kruse, 2010; Scazzosi, 2018) this Knowledge Cafe aims to analyze how, during the 20th Century, new rural landscapes were created, assuming a historic and cultural significance as witnesses of this crucial period. Significant examples are the land reclamation activities in Europe, the agrarian reforms, the new facilities and transportation networks aimed to support the expanding productions, the new irrigation schemes for agricultural development in inland areas, the realization of model towns. New rural settlements, indeed, were created under totalitarian regimes, whether inside their country or in their colonies, while, after World War II, new settlements were conceived for resettling farmers -often referring to vernacular architecture and rationalist architecture as a model - as a response to the increasing discrepancies between industrialized and rural areas. Finally, it is worth reflecting on the several theoretical proposals for new agrarian societies, in the wake of international examples as the Unité d’Explotation Agricole by Le Corbusier or the Broadacre City by F.L. Wright. Beyond the comparative analysis of rural landscapes of the 20th Century, the final objective will be also to discuss strategies for their sustainable management. (This contribution is developed in collaboration with ICOMOS-ISC20C and ICOMOS Italy working group on 20th Century)

 

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